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[Frequently Asked Sexuality Questions to The Kinsey Institute]

Information below is compiled from various research reports. For original Kinsey data, see Selections from the 1947 and 1953 "Kinsey Reports".For more resources on any of these topics, visit our Sexuality Information Links page.

Pleae note: we are in the process of updating this page with the most recent statistics from the newly published National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSBH). Please check back for continuted updates. For more information on the 2010 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior , visit NationalSexStudy.indiana.edu/.

See also, Tom W. Smith, American Sexual Behavior: Trends, Socio-Demographic Differences and Risk Behavior, National Opinion Research Council, University of Chicago, 2006

Age at First Intercourse BDSM Bisexuality Condom Use
Contraception Fantasy Frequency of Sex Homosexuality
HIV/AIDS Infidelity Internet Pornography Masturbation
Number of partners Orgasm Penis Size Pregnancy
Prostitution/Sex Work Reproductive Health Sex and Aging Sex and Relationships
Sex Practices Sexual Violence Sexually Transmitted Infections Teen Sexual Activity
Transgender Vagina Size FAQ Bibliography

 


Age at First Intercourse

  • By their late teenage years, at least 3/4 of all men and women have had intercourse, and more than 2/3 of all sexually experienced teens have had 2 or more partners (AGI, 2002).

  • A 2007 evaluation of Abstinence (only) Sex Education programs by Mathmatica Policy Research did not find that they had any effects on rates of abstinence among youth, nor on the average age of first intecourse. Government funded abstinence based programs, compared to previous sex education programs, show little significant difference in rates of teen sex. http://www.mathematica-mpr.com/publications/PDFs/impactabstinence.pdf
Percent of population having had first intercourse, by age
Males
Females
25% by age 15 26% by age 15
37% by age 16 40% by age 16
46% by age 17 49% by age 17
62% by age 18 70% by age 18
69% by age 19
77% by age 19
85% by age 20-21 81% by age 20-21
89% by age 22-24 92% by age 22-24

(Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)

Average age of first intercourse, by gender
Males
Females
16.9
17.4

(AGI, 2002).

Average age of first intercourse, by ethnicity
White Black Hispanic Asian American Other
16.6 15.8 17.0 18.1 17.4

(Upchurch et al, 1998)

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BDSM

  • BDSM stands for Bondage, Discipline, Domination/Submission, Sadism/Masochism.
  • In a small sample there were no significant differences between BDSM practitioners and the general population on measures of psychopathology, depression, anxiety, OCD, and psychological sadism and masochism. (Connoly 2006)
  • A study looking at message board posts found 71% of heterosexual males but only 11% of heterosexual females and 12% of homosexual males prefer a dominant role when engaging in sexual bondage. (Ernulf, 1995.)
  • The National Coalition for Sexual Freedom, a national organization committed to supporting the equal rights of consenting adults who practice forms of alternative sexual expression, conducted an informal survey of SM practitioners in 1998-1999. Some survey results are available on the NCSF website, and indicate that SM practitioners may be at greater risk for harassment, violence, and damage to property.(NCSF, 1999)
  • 5-10% of the U.S. engages in SM for sexual pleasure on at least an occasional basis (Lowe, 1983).
  • 12% of females and 22% of males reported erotic response to a SM story (Kinsey, Martin, Gebhard, 1953).
  • 55% of females and 50% of males reported having responded erotically to being bitten (Kinsey, Martin, Gebhard, 1953).
  • 14% of men and 11% of women have had some sexual experience with sadomasochism (Janus & Janus, 1993).
  • 11% of men and 17% of women reported trying bondage (Lowe, 1983).

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Bisexuality

  • A 2011 study found that bisexual men exhibited a distinctive arousal pattern separate from heterosexual or homosexual men. Cerny, 2011.
See also: data from the Kinsey Reports

Condom Use

Condom Use Rates by Age and Gender
(Click image for larger version)

Condom Use Rates by Age and Gender

(NSSHB, 2010)

Information on condom use and errors, from ongoing research at The Kinsey Institute:
  • 28.1% of men reported that they had lost their erection while putting on a condom at least once during the last three times they used a condoms.
  • Men who reported erection loss with condoms were almost twice as likely to report having removed a condom prematurely during the last three condom uses. (40.8% of men reporting erection loss prematurely removed condoms, compared with 21.3% of men not reporting problems)
  • Erection loss was more likely among men who reported at least one condom breakage (47.1 percent) compared with men not reporting breakage (32.5 percent).
  • A study at The Kinsey Institute found some of the most common problems with condom use to be damage (74%), not checking the expiration date (61%), and not discussing condom use with a partner before sex (60%). In addition, various technical errors were found, including putting on the condom after starting sex (43%), taking off the condom before sex was over (15%), not leaving a space at the tip of the condom (40%), and placing the condom upside down on the penis and then having to flip it over (30%). 29% of study participants reported condom breakage and 13% reported that the condom slipped off during sex. Individuals who reported slippage or breakage also had significantly higher scores for condom use errors. http://newsinfo.iu.edu/news/page/normal/4334.html, "Condom, erection-loss study identifies possible path to risky behavior," Indiana University Press Release (2006)
  • More information and study results at http://www.kinseyinstitute.org/research/condomerror.html

Contraception

  • 1 of 4 acts of vaginal intercourse are condom protected in the U.S. (1 in 3 among singles). (NSSHB, 2010)
  • Condom use is higher among black and Hispanic Americans than among white Americans and those from other racial groups. (NSSHB, 2010)
  • Adults using a condom for intercourse were just as likely to rate the sexual extent positively in terms of arousal, pleasure and orgasm than when having intercourse without one. (NSSHB, 2010)
  • 62% of the 62 million women aged 15-44 are currently using a contraceptive method (AGI, 2002).
  • Among U.S. women who practice contraception, the Pill is the most popular choice (30.6%), followed by tubal sterilization (27.0%), and the male condom (18.0%).(AGI, 2002).
  • 27% of teenage women using contraceptives choose condoms as their primary method. (AGI, 2002).

See Kinsey Confidential for more information on contraceptive methods and effectiveness.

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Fantasy

  • Men's sexual fantasies tend to be more sexually explicit than women's; women's fantasies tend to be more emotional and romantic (Zurbriggen & Yost, 2004).
  • In one study, men's fantasies mentioned a partner's sexual desire and pleasure more frequently than did women's fantasies (Zurbriggen & Yost, 2004).
  • 54% of men think about sex everyday or several times a day, 43% a few times per month or a few times per week, and 4% less than once a month (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • 19% of women think about sex everyday or several times a day, 67% a few times per month or a few times per week, and 14% less than once a month (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • Recalled onset of first sexual fantasy is generally between 11-13yrs with men recalling earlier onset of fantasy than women. (Leitenberg, 1995)
  • Sexual fantasies are healthy, occurring most often in people showing the fewest sexual problems and least sexual dissatisfaction. (Leitenberg, 1995).
  • While both men and women can experience similar fantasies, women more often fantasize about taking a passive role or being dominated while men more often fantasize about taking a dominant role, doing something sexual to their partner, or having multiple partners. (Leitenberg, 1995).

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Frequency of sex

Percentage of Men Reporting Frequency of Vaginal Sex, N=2396
Age Group
18-24
25-29
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
70+
Single
  Not in past year
56.9
46.6
39.6
48.9
67.7
86.4
81.6
  A few times per year to monthly
13.9
21.9
24.2
18.4
14.9
8.6
5.3
 A few times per month to weekly
19.0
27.1
23.1
22.4
11.6
3.7
13.2
 2-3 times per week
8.0
4.1
1.7
8.0
5.3
1.2
0.0
 4 or more times per week
2.2
0.0
5.5
2.3
0.5
0.0
0.0
Partnered
Not in past year
26.0
20.8
15.6
29.9
34.1
27.3
26.3
A few times per year to monthly
8.0
10.4
6.5
9.2
10.6
11.4
10.5
A few times per month to weekly
30.0
36.4
32.5
24.1
31.8
20.5
63.2
2-3 times per week
26.0
27.1
39.0
25.3
18.8
38.6
0.0
4 or more times per week
10.0
6.3
6.5
11.5
4.7
2.3
0.0
Married
Not in past year
4.2
1.6
4.5
9.1
20.6
33.9
54.2
A few times per year to monthly
12.5
9.3
15.6
16.2
25.0
21.2
24.2
A few times per month to weekly
16.7
46.3
47.3
51.0
38.3
35.4
15.0
2-3 times per week
45.8
37.1
26.8
19.9
15.0
9.5
5.8
4 or more times per week
20.8
5.9
5.8
3.7
1.1
0.0
0.8

NSSHB, 2010, excerpted from "Sexual Behaviors, Relationships, and Perceived Health Among Adult Men in the United States: Results from a National Probability Sample", Table 6.

Percentage of Women Reporting Frequency of Vaginal Sex, N=2393
Age Group
18-24
25-29
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
70+
Single
  Not in past year
50.8
43.0
72.3
71.1
85.4
84.5
100.0
  A few times per year to monthly
16.4
21.5
10.7
16.9
5.4
6.5
0.0
 A few times per month to weekly
19.7
24.1
12.5
9.9
7.0
6.5
0.0
 2-3 times per week
8.2
1.3
4.5
2.1
2.2
2.6
0.0
 4 or more times per week
4.9
10.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
Partnered
Not in past year
12.9
10.6
14.8
20.6
21.1
14.8
30.8
A few times per year to monthly
16.1
11.7
13.6
13.7
18.3
11.1
15.4
A few times per month to weekly
31.2
36.2
43.2
24.5
36.6
48.1
23.1
2-3 times per week
32.3
28.7
18.2
31.4
18.3
18.5
7.7
4 or more times per week
7.5
12.8
10.2
9.8
5.6
7.4
23.1
Married
Not in past year
11.8
3.5
6.5
8.1
22.0
37.9
53.5
A few times per year to monthly
14.7
11.6
16.3
21.7
23.7
20.0
25.4
A few times per month to weekly
14.7
47.7
50.2
46.6
36.2
35.9
18.3
2-3 times per week
35.3
35.2
21.9
20.8
16.9
6.2
1.4
4 or more times per week
23.5
2.0
5.1
2.7
1.1
0.0
1.4

NSSHB, 2010, excerpted from "Sexual Behaviors, Relationships, and Perceived Health Among Adult Men in the United States: Results from a National Probability Sample", Table 6.

  • 90% of men and 86% of women have had sex in the past year
  • 27% of men and 19% of women have had oral sex in the past year
  • 23% of men and 11% of women have bought X-rated movies or videos
  • 10% of men and 9% of women have had anal sex in the past year.
  • 18-29 year olds have sex an average of 112 times per year, 30-39 year olds an average of 86 times per year, and 40-49 year olds an average of 69 times per year (Mosher, Chandra, Jones 2005).
  • 23% of non-married men reported they have never had sex in the past year, 25% reported only a few times in the past year, 26% reported a few times in the past month, 19% reported 2-3 times a week, and 7% reported 4 or more times a week (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • 32% of non-married women reported they have never had sex in the past year, 23% reported only a few times in the past year, 24% reported a few times in the past month, 15% reported 2-3 times a week, and 5% reported 4 or more times a week (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • 1% of married men reported they have never had sex in the past year, 13% reported only a few times in the past year, 43% reported a few times in the past month, 36% reported 2-3 times a week, and 7% reported 4 or more times a week (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • 3% of married women reported they have never had sex in the past year,
  • 12% reported only a few time in the past year, 47% reported a few times in the past month, 32% reported 2-3 times a week, and 7% reported 4 or more times a week (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • 13% of married couples reported having sex a few times per year, 45% reported a few times per month, 34% reported 2-3 times per week, and 7% reported 4 or more times per week (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
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HIV/AIDS

  • As of 2010, the CDC estimates that over one million people are living with HIV in the U.S., with 1 in five of those people unaware of their infection.
  • Estimated number of diagnoses of HIV among adults by demographic category (2010).

    % of New Infections Each Year % of People Living with HIV
    Infected Individuals in the U.S. by Exposure Category
    Men who have sex with men
    53%
    48%
    Infected through heterosexual contact
    - Women only
    31%
    27%
    28%
    25%
    Injection drug use
    12%
    19%
    Infected Individuals in the U.S. by Race or Ethnicity
    African American (men and women)
    45%
    46%
    Hispanic / Latino (men and women)
    17%
    17%

    (CDC 2010)

    Estimated number of diagnoses of AIDS among adults by exposure category (2003).

    Exposure Category Estimated # of AIDS Cases, in 2003
    Male Female Total
    Male-to-male sexual contact
    17,969
    -
    17,969
    Injection Drug Use
    6,353
    3,096
    9,449
    Male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use
    1,877
    -
    1,877
    Heterosexual contact
    5,133
    8,127
    13,260
    Other*
    281
    276
    557

    (CDC, 2003)

    Estimated numbers of diagnoses of AIDS, by race or ethnicity (2003):

    Race or Ethnicity Estimated # of AIDS Cases in 2003 Cumulative Estimated # of AIDS Cases, Through 2003
    White, not Hispanic 12,222 376,834
    Black, not Hispanic 21,304 368,169
    Hispanic 8,757 172,993
    Asian/Pacific Islander 497 7,166
    American Indian/Alaska Native 196 3,026

    (CDC, 2003)


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Homosexuality

  • The Kinsey Institute Bibliography: Prevalence of Homosexuality
  • In an analysis of national survey results from 2006-2008, The percentage reporting their sexual identity as homosexual ranged from 2% to 4% of males, and about 1% to 2% of females. The percentage reporting their sexual identity as bisexual is between 1% and 3% of males, and 2% to 5% of females. (Chandra, Mosher, Copen, and Sionean 2011)
  • About 4%–6% of males ever had same-sex contact. For females, the percentage who have ever had same-sex contact ranges from about 4% ... to 11%–12%. (Chandra, Mosher, Copen, and Sionean 2011)
  • While about 7% of adult women and 8% of men identify as gay, lesbian or bisexual, the proportion of individuals in the U.S. who have had same-gender sexual interactions at some point in their lives is higher. (NSSHB, 2010)
  • In a national survey, 90% of men aged 18-44 considered themselves to be heterosexual, 2.3% as homosexual, 1.8% as bisexual, and 3.9% as 'something else' (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005).
  • Among women aged 18-44 in the same survey, 90% said they were heterosexual, 1.3% homosexual, 2.8% bisexual, and 3.8% as 'something else' (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005).
  • The incidence rate of homosexual desire for men is 7.7% and 7.5% for women (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • 6.2% of men and 4.4% of women are attracted to people of the same sex (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • 4% of men and 2% of women consider themselves homosexual while 5% of men and 3% of women consider themselves bisexual (Janus & Janus, 1993).
  • 88.2% of adolescent youths as a Minnesota junior/senior high school described himself or herself as heterosexual, while 1.1% described himself or herself as bisexual or homosexual, and 10.7% were not sure of their sexual orientation (Remafedi, 1992).

Kinsey Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale - also known as "the Kinsey scale"

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Infidelity

  • Infidelity has been found to be the single most cited cause of divorce in over 150 cultures. (Betzig, 1989)
  • In western countries, between 25 and 50% of divorcees cite a spouse’s infidelity as the primary cause of the divorce. (Kelly, 1987; Amato, 1997)
  • Approximately 20-25% of men and 10-15% of women engage in extramarital sex at least once during their marriage. (Laumann, 1994; Wiederman, 1997)
  • Pregnancy appears to be a time of increased risk of extramarital sex. (Allen, 2005; White, 1982)
  • Women are less approving than men of sexual justifications for extramarital affairs, preferring emotional reasons such as “falling in love”. (Glass, 1992).
  • Approximately 50% of divorced men and women reported that there former spouse had engaged in extra-marital sex. For divorced couples, previous participation in extramarital sex showed no effect on post-marital adjustment. (Spanier, 1982).
  • 11% of adults who have ever been married or cohabited have been unfaithful to their partner (Treas & Giesen, 2000).
  • Infidelity is influenced by many social and demographic factors. All of the following were associated with an increased risk of infidelity: having been part of a couple for a long time; having had a high number of prior sex partners; being male or black; living in a central city; and thinking about sex several times a day (Treas & Giesen, 2000).
  • Respondents who reported that their relationships were "pretty happy" and "not too happy" were two and four times more likely, respectively, to have reported extramarital sex than respondents who reported that they were "very happy" with their relationships (Atkins et al., 2001).
  • More than 80% of women and 65 to 85% of men report that they had no partners other than their spouse while they were married (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • 94% of married men and women had only one sex partner (their spouse) in the past 12 months, 4% had 2-4 partners, and 1% had over 5 partners (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
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Internet Pornography

  • Overuse, pornography, infidelity, and risky behaviors are among the most frequently treated Internet-related problems by mental health professionals. (Mitchell, 2005).
  • Over half of all spending on the Internet is estimated to be related to sex. (Yoder, 2005).
  • US porn revenues have been estimated to exceed the combined revenues of companies like ABC, CBS, and NBC. (Yoder, 2005).
  • In a survey of adolescent (10-17yrs) internet users found 42% had been exposed to internet pornography in the past year, with 66% of those exposures reported as unwanted. (Wolak, 2007).
  • Only boys ages 16-17 reported more wanted exposures than unwanted exposures to internet pornography. (Wolak, 2007).
  • In a national study, 14% of people reported having used a sexually explicit website ever (Buzzell, 2005).
  • In the same study, 25% of men reported visiting a pornographic site in the previous 30 days; 4% of women reported visiting pornographic sites in the same timeframe. (Buzzell, 2005).
  • Only 8% of men and women using the Internet for sexual reasons reported significant problems typically associated with compulsive disorders (Cooper, Scherer, Boies, Gordon, 1999).
  • In a study of Internet addiction of 396 "addicts", as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, the average time spent on the Internet for nonacademic and nonprofessional purposes was 38 hours per week (Cooper, Scherer, Boies, Gordon, 1999).
  • Males have been found to make up two thirds of users of sexually explicit Internet sites and account for 77% of on-line time (Cooper, Scherer, Boies, Gordon, 1999).
  • 51% of women reported they never download sexual material (Cooper, Scherer, Boies, Gordon, 1999).

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Masturbation

    Masturbation activity alone by men and women in the past month, past year, and over their lifetime:


    AGE18-1920-2425-2930-3940-49 50-5960-6970+
    Men
    Past Month61.1%62.8%68.6%66.4%60.1%55.7%42.3%27.9%
    Past Year80.6%82.7%83.6%80.1%76%72.1%61.2%46.4%
    Lifetime86.191.8%94.3%93.4%92%89.2%90.2%80.4%
    Women
    Past Month26%43.7%51.7%38.6%38.5%28.3%21.5%11.5%
    Past Year60%64.3%71.5%62.9%64.9%54.1%46.5%32.8%
    Lifetime66%76.8%84.6%80.3%78%77.2%72%58.3%

    NSSHB, 2010

  • More than half of women ages 18 to 49 reported masturbating during the previous 90 days. Rates were highest among those 25-29 and progressively lesser in older age groups. NSSHB, 2010
  • Approximately one-third of women in all relationships in the 60- to 69-year cohort reported recent masturbation. NSSHB, 2010
  • Among women in the National Sex Survey older than 70, solo masturbation was reported by more than half who were in a non-cohabitating relationship, compared to 12.2% among married women.NSSHB, 2010
  • Masturbation activity with a partner by men and women in the past month, past year, and over their lifetime:

    AGE18-1920-2425-2930-3940-49 50-5960-6970+
    Men
    Past Month 14.5% 15% 20.5% 22.9% 19.2% 14.4% 10.3% 4.1%
    Past Year 42% 43.5% 49.3% 44.7% 38.1% 27.9% 17% 12.9%
    Lifetime 49.3% 54.5% 69% 68.3% 61.5% 51.9% 37% 31.6%
    Women
    Past Month 18.4% 16.1% 24.1% 19.3% 12.7% 6.7% 5.9% 2.1%
    Past Year 36% 35.9% 48.2% 43.3% 34.8% 17.7% 13.1% 5.3%
    Lifetime 38.8% 46.9% 64% 63.1% 56.1% 46.9% 36.4% 17.5%

    NSSHB, 2010

  • Partnered masturbation among women was reported highest among women ages 25-29. NSSHB, 2010
  • Across all age groups, partnered women are significantly more likely to report having engaged in partnered masturbation as compared to nonpartnered women. NSSHB, 2010
  • Partnered masturbation was most common among women in the 25-29 and 30-39 year-old groups who were single and dating. NSSHB, 2010
  • Other study results on masturbation activity:

  • In a study of undergraduate college students, 98% of men and 44% of women reported having ever masturbated (Pinkerton, Bogart, Cecil, & Abramson, 2002).
  • Among undergraduate students, men reported masturbating an average of 12 times per month, while women reported an average of 4.7 times per month (Pinkerton, Bogart, Cecil, & Abramson, 2002).
  • In a study of African-American women aged 15 to 64, 62% reported that they had masturbated at some point during their lives (Robinson, Bockting, & Harrell, 2002).
  • About 60% of men and 40% of women reported masturbating in the past year (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • Nearly 85% of men and 45% of women who were living with a sexual partner reported masturbating in the past year (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • 35% of American men aged 18-39 do not masturbate while 37% masturbate sometimes, and 28% one or more times per week (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • 53% of men and 25% of women masturbated for the first time by ages 11 to 13 (Janus & Janus, 1993).
  • 5% of men and 11% of women have never masturbated (Janus & Janus, 1993).

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Number of Partners

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Orgasm

  • About 85% of men report that their partner had an orgasm at the most recent sexual event; this compares to the 64% of women who report having had an orgasm at their most recent sexual event. (A difference that is too large to be accounted for by some of the men having had male partners at their most recent event.) (NSSHB, 2010.)
  • Men are more likely to orgasm when sex includes vaginal intercourse; women are more likely to orgasm when they engage in a variety of sex acts and when oral sex or vaginal intercourse is included. (NSSHB, 2010.)
  • Among ages 18-59, older age for men is associated with lower likelihood of his own orgasm; for women it is associated with a higher likelihood of her own orgasm. Age is not associated with the partner's orgasm for either men or women. NSSHB, 2010.
  • Women are much more likely to be nearly always or always orgasmic when alone than with a partner. However, among women currently in a partnered relationship, 62% say they are very satisfied with the frequency/consistency of orgasm (Davis, Blank, Hung-Yu, & Bonillas, 1996).
  • Many women express that their most satisfying sexual experiences entail being connected to someone, rather than solely basing satisfaction on orgasm (Bridges, Lease, & Ellison, 2004).
  • 75% of men and 29% of women always have orgasms with their partner (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • About 40% for both men and women said they were extremely pleased physically and extremely emotionally satisfied (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, Michaels, 1994).
  • 25% of men and 14% of women reported that simultaneous orgasm is a must (Janus & Janus, 1993).
  • 10% of men and 18% of women reported a preference for oral sex to achieve orgasm (Janus & Janus, 1993).
  • It is possible to experience both genital and non-genital orgasm, even for some individuals with spinal cord injuries. (Komisaruk, 2005).

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Penis Size

  • According to Gebhard and Johnson (1979), the average erect penis of males in the US is 5-7 inches and the average circumference is 4-6 inches. See Penis FAQ & Bibliography for more information.
  • More recent data (not yet published) indicates an average erect penis length is between 5 to 6 inches, and average flaccid penis length ranges between 1 and 4 inches.
  • A study of 300 men (unpublished) conducted by Kinsey Institute researcher Dr. Erick Janssen from 1989-1993 returned a mean penis circumference of 122 mm (approximately 4.8 inches).
  • For a discussion of recent research, and facts and myths about penis size, see "Penis Myths Debunked" at www.livescience.org.
  • For a discussion of the facts and myths about penis enlargement, please visit the Male Sex Questions section of our Kinsey Confidential website.

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Pregnancy

  • Roughly six million U.S. women become pregnant per year. About two-thirds of these pregnancies result in live births and roughly 25% in abortions; the remainder end in miscarriage. (AGI, 2005).
  • The U.S. teen pregnancy rate fell by 27 percent between 1990 and 2000, from 116.3 pregnancies per 1,000 girls aged 15-19 to 84.5. This data includes live births, abortions, and fetal losses. Pregnancy data includes live births, induced abortions, and fetal losses (NCHS, 2004).
  • 6 in 10 teen pregnancies occur among 18-19 year-olds (AGI, 1999).
  • Almost 1 million teenage women, 10% of all women aged 15-19 and 19% of those who have had intercourse, become pregnant each year (AGI, 1999).
  • 80 million women have unwanted or unintended pregnancies every year (Glasier et al, 2006).

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Prostitution/Sex Work

  • 15.3% of men estimated to have had sex with a prostitute previously (Smith 2006)
  • Despite common conceptions of prostitution, only a minority of prostitutes work on the streets (10–30%). While street prostitution receives the majority of legal attention, far more prostitutes work as escorts, call girls, or in massage parlors and brothels. (Weitzer, 2005).
  • Average prostitution arrests are comprised of 70% female prostitutes, 20% percent male prostitutes and 10% customers (Alexander, 1987).
  • In 1983, 125,600 people were arrested for prostitution while in 1994, that number dropped to 98,190 people (Meier, Geis, 1997).
  • 69% of white males had at least one experience with a prostitute (Kinsey, Martin, Gebhard, 1948).

Reproductive Health

  • Postpartum depression (PPD) strikes about 1 in 10 Western women. Studies of Western women have demonstrated that this emotional experience can occur during pregnancy and/or after delivery, and even in women who adopt an infant. (Goldbort, 2006).
  • Each year, 210 million women suffer life-threatening complications of pregnancy and half a million die from pregnancy-related causes (99% of them in developing countries) (Glasier et al, 2006).
  • Each year, 3 million babies die in the first week of life and about 3.3 million infants are stillborn. (Glasier et al, 2006).
  • Currently, more than 120 million couples a year have an unmet need for contraception (Glasier et al, 2006).
  • Each year, 257 000 women die from cervical cancer (Glasier et al, 2006).

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Sex and Aging

Percentage reporting sexual activity
within the past year
  Men 50-80+   Women 50-80+ 
Masturbation
Not in past year
36.5
53.3
A few times per year
25.8
34.3
A few times per month
20.0
10.7
2 or 3 times per week
13.2
1.3
4 or more times per week
4.5
0.5
Gave oral sex
None
62.9
74.2
Within the past year
37.1
25.8
Received oral sex
None
60.7
74.4
Within the past year
39.3
25.6
Penile-vaginal intercourse
Not in past year
46.4
58.0
A few times per year
17.8
13.5
A few times per month
24.6
20.3
2 or 3 times per week
10.2
6.8
4 or more times per week
0.9
1.4
Anal intercourse
None
92.3
95.9
Within the past year
7.7
4.1

NSSHB, 2010, "Sexual Behaviors, Condom Use, and Sexual Health of Americans Over 50: Implications for Sexual Health Promotion for Older Adults."

  • Among participants aged 18-59 in the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior (2010), age was related to greater difficulty with erections and lubrication. NSSHB, 2010.
  • Among ages 18-59, older age for men is associated with lower likelihood of his own orgasm; for women it is associated with a higher likelihood of her own orgasm. Age is not associated with the partner's orgasm for either men or women. NSSHB, 2010.
  • For women aged 50 and higher, older age is related to a decline in all sexual behaviors: 5% per year of age for penile-vaginal intercourse; 7% per year of age receiving or giving oral sex (NSSHB, 2010).
  • For men aged 50 and higher, rates for anal intercourse and receiving oral sex decrease at 8% per year of age (NSSHB, 2010).
  • Most men (63.46%) and approximately half of women (46.73%) aged 50 and higher report masturbating in the last year. Overall rates for oral sex, penile-vaginal intercourse, and anal intercourse within the last year were similar (NSSHB, 2010).
  • Rates of condom usage are low among adults aged 50 and higher, with approximately 2/3 reporting they did not use a condom during their last sexual encounter (NSSHB, 2010).
Percentage of Men Reporting Use of Erectile Medication During Their Last Sexual Encounter
Overall (50-80+)
16.9
50-59
7.7
60-69
30.1
70-79
22.7
80+
18.8

NSSHB, 2010, "Sexual Behaviors, Condom Use, and Sexual Health of Americans Over 50: Implications for Sexual Health Promotion for Older Adults," p.322.


    Sex and Relationships

    • More than half the participants in the 2010 national sex survey ages 18-24 indicated that their most recent sexual partner was a casual or dating partner. For all other age groups, the majority of study participants indicated that their most recent sexual partner was a relationship partner. (NSSHB, 2010).
    • Men whose most recent sexual encounter was with a relationship partner reported greater arousal, greater pleasure, fewer problems with erectile function, orgasm, and less pain during the event than men whose last sexual encounter was with a non-relationship partner. (NSSHB, 2010).
    • Nearly all Americans marry during their lifetime, yet close to half of all first marriages are expected to end in separation or divorce, many within a few years (Bramlett, 2002) and subsequent marriages are even more likely to end (Karney, 1995).
    • Sexual dissatisfaction is associated with increased risk of divorce and relationship dissolution. (Karney, 1995).
    • Most newly married couples wish to have children at some point during their marriage (Matthews & Matthews, 1986), or already have them.
    • Approximately 15% of married couples, however, are estimated to experience problems trying to become pregnant and seek help, which not uncommonly involves recommendations regarding the timing and frequency of sexual interactions. (Haugen et al., 2004; Meyers, Diamond, Kezur, et al, 1995).
    • A study of married couples found age and marital satisfaction to be the two variables most associated with amount of sex. As couples age, they engage in sex less frequently with half of couples age 65-75 still engaging in sex, but less than one fourth of couples over 75 still sexually active. Across all ages couples who reported higher levels of marital satisfaction also reported higher frequencies of sex. (Call, 1995).

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    Sex Practices

    There is wide variability in what people consider included in “having sex”. In a recent study at The Kinsey Institute, nearly 45% of participants considered performing manual-genital stimulation to be “having sex,” 71% considered performing oral sex to be “sex,” 80.8% for anal-genital intercourse. Considerations of “sex” also varied depending on whether or not a condom was used, female or male orgasm, and if the respondent was performing or receiving the stimulation.

    With participants ranging from 18 to 96 years, the oldest and youngest groups of men were less likely to consider some behaviors as “sex”.

    Sanders, Stephanie A., Hill, Brandon J., Yarber, William L., Graham, Cynthia A., Crosby, Richard A. and Milhausen, Robin R. (2010). Misclassification bias: diversity in conceptualizations about having 'had sex.' Sexual Health 7(1): 31–34. DOI:10.1071/SH09068.
      Percentage of Americans Performing Certain Sexual Behaviors in the Past Year

      Click table for larger view

      Percentage of American Peforming Certain Sexual Behaviors

      NSSHB, 2010

    • There is enormous variability in the sexual repertoires of U.S. adults, with more than 40 combinations of sexual activity described at adults’ most recent sexual event. NSSHB, 2010
    • Adult men and women rarely engage in just one sex act when they have sex. NSSHB, 2010
    • While vaginal intercourse is still the most common sexual behavior reported by adults, many sexual events do not involve intercourse and include only partnered masturbation or oral sex. NSSHB, 2010

    • Half or more of women ages 18 to 39 reported giving or receiving oral sex in the past 90 days. NSSHB, 2010
    • Receptive oral sex is reported by more than half of women who are in a co-habitating relationship between the ages of 18 and 69. It was also reported by more than half of women cohabitation between ages 18 and 49, and more than half of married women ages 30-39.NSSHB, 2010
    • A similar pattern was found for women performing oral sex. NSSHB, 2010
    • For most age groups of women, perceeived health status was significantly associated with having performed oral sex in the past 90 days. NSSHB, 2010

    • The majority of women age 18-49 report vaginal intercourse in the past 90 days. NSSHB, 2010
    • Partnered women in all age groups are significantly more likely to report recent vaginal intercourse, and the gap between partnered and nonpartnered women's reports of vaginal intercourse increased with age. NSSHB, 2010

    • Although anal intercourse is reported by fewer women than other partnered sex behaviors, it is not rare. NSSHB, 2010
    • Partnered women in the ages groups between 18-49 are significantly more likely to report having anal sex in the past 90 days. NSSHB, 2010

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    Sexual Violence

    • 272,350 sexual assaults in 2006 in the US: 1 sexual assault every 116 seconds, or about 1 every 2 minutes. (US Dept of Justice, National Crime Victimization Survey, 2006).
    • Less than 5% of rapes were reported to law enforcement officials. (Fisher, 2000).
    • Rape rates are often drastically high in worn-torn nations. In Rwanda in 1994, it is estimated that between 250,000 and 500,000 women and girls were raped in less than 100 days (Human Rights Watch, 1996).
    • Child sexual abuse is believed to affect 10-25% of girls worldwide (World Health Organization, 2004).
    • In studies conducted mostly in developed countries, 5–10% of men report being sexually abused as children (World Health Organization, 2004)
    • In one 7 month period, 16.6 college women out of 1000 experienced a completed rape and 11 college women out of 1000 experienced an attempted rape (Fisher, Cullen, Turner, 2000).
    • 2.8% of college women experience rape, either completed or attempted (Fisher, Cullen, Turner, 2000).
    • In 9 out of 10 of these cases, the rapist was someone the victim knew, such as a boyfriend, friend, or acquaintance (Fisher, Cullen, Turner, 2000).
    • 22.8% of college rape-victims are multiple-rape victims (Fisher, Cullen, Turner, 2000).
    • Less than 5% of rapes were reported to law enforcement officials (Fisher, Cullen, Turner, 2000).
    • In the general population in the US, 14.8% of women report an experience with a completed rape in their lifetime. Another 2.8% report an attempted rape in their lifetime (Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000).
    • An estimated 100 million to 400 million women worldwide have been subjected to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). About 3 million girls are subjected to the procedure every year (World Health Organization, 2006).

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    STIs

    • Percent of men and women, aged 15-44 reporting any sexually-transmitted infection, other than HIV
      Males
      Females
      3.2% of ages 15-19 10.5% of ages 15-19
      7.1% of ages 20-24 13.4% of ages 20-24
      4.8% of ages 25-29 16.5% of ages 25-29
      9.3% of ages 30-34 18.6% of ages 30-34
      9.0% of ages 35-44 19.2% of ages 35-44
    • The Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 19 million new sexually-transmitted infections occur each year, almost half of them among young people ages 15 to 24 (Weinstock, Berman , Cates, 2004).
    • By the age of 24, one in three sexually active people will have contracted an STI (KFF, 1998).
    • At least 65 million people, more than one in 5 Americans, are believed to be infected with a viral STI other than HIV (NCHSTP, 1998).
    • The CDC reports persistent racial disparities in STD rates. Blacks represent only 12 percent of the total U.S. population, but made up about 70 percent of gonorrhea cases and almost half of all chlamydia and syphilis cases in 2007. While Hispanics account for 15 percent of the U.S. population, they account for 19 percent of all reported chlamydia cases(CDC, 2007). The CDC suggests that "Socioeconomic barriers to quality healthcare and STD prevention and treatment services have likely contributed to a higher prevalence and incidence of STDs among racial and ethnic minorities."
    • Chlamydia remains the most reported infections disease in the US, and also the most undiagnosed; It is estimated that there are approximately 2.8 million new cases of chlamydia in the United States each year, and nearly half of these are unreported (Weinstock, Berman , Cates, 2004).
    • The reported chlamydia case rate for females in 2007 was almost three times higher than for males. This may be in part because increased public knowledge of the disease has led to an increase in screening among young women (CDC, 2007).
    • Chlamydia is common among all races and ethnic groups; however, African-American, American Indian/ Alaska Native, and Hispanic women are disproportionately affected (CDC, 2007).
    Comparison of Male and Female Syphilis Trends 1981-2007

    Click for larger image (CDC, 2007)

    • The rate of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis — the most infectious stages of the disease — decreased throughout the 1990s, and in 2000 reached an all-time low. However, over the past seven years, the syphilis rate in the United States has been increasing. Between 2006 and 2007, the national P&S syphilis rate increased 15.2 percent, from 3.3 to 3.8 cases per 100,000 population (CDC, 2007).
    • The gap between syphilis rates in men and women has grown consistently. The P&S syphilis rate among males is now six times the rate among females, whereas the rates were almost equivalent a decade ago, suggesting that increases in men have largely been among men who have sex with men (MSM). (CDC, 2007)
    • Even so, overall infection rates among women also increased every year from 2004 to 2007. The largest increases were among black females (CDC, 2007).
    • The rate of congenital syphilis (i.e., transmission from mother to infant) increased for the second year in a row in 2007. Increases in congenital syphilis have historically followed increases among women (CDC, 2007).
    • In 2007, the syphilis rate among blacks was seven times higher than that of whites (14.0 per 100,000 population as compared with 2.0). While this represents a substantial decline from 1999, when the rate among blacks was 29 times greater than among whites, significant disparities remain (CDC, 2007) .
    Trends in Gonorrhea Infection 1941-2007

    Click for larger image (CDC, 2007)

    • After a sharp decline from 1975-1997, rates for gonorrhea have remained stable over the last decade. In 2007, the overall gonorrhea rate was 118.9 cases per 100,000 population, and rates were slightly higher among women (123.5) than among men (113.7). (CDC, 2007).
    • Like chlamydia, gonorrhea is substantially under diagnosed and under reported, and approximately twice as many new infections are estimated to occur each year as are reported (Weinstock, Berman , Cates, 2004).
    • Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported infectious disease in the United States, with 330,132 cases reported in 2004 (Weinstock, Berman , Cates, 2004).
    • Racial disparities in gonorrhea rates are the most severe of all reportable STDs. The gonorrhea rate among blacks was 19 times greater than that of whites in 2007. (CDC, 2007).

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    Teen Sexual Activity

    • At any given point in time, most U.S. adolescents are not engaging in partnered sexual behavior. While 40% of 17 year-old males reported vaginal intercourse in the past year, only 27% reported the same in the past 90 days. (NSSHB, 2010)
    • Solo masturbation is the most prevalent teenage sexual activity, and reported recent solo masturbation is high at 43% of males and 37% of females. (NSSHB, 2010)
    • Solo masturbation rates increase in males to about 2/3 of 17-year-olds, but stay stable among females of all age groups at about 1/3. (NSSHB, 2010)
    • Rates of recent oral sex are relatively low among 14-year-olds (4.3% female partners for young men and 6.6% male partners for young women), but increase with age. (NSSHB, 2010)

    • SEXUAL ACTIVITY (%) Past 90 Days Past Year Lifetime
      Ages 14 -17 MalesFemales MalesFemales MalesFemales
      Solo Masturbation
      57.8
      35.9
      68.6
      42.6
      73.8
      48.1
      Partnered Masturbation
      7.9
      10.8
      10.9
      13.8
      13.4
      15.0
      Gave Oral Sex
      11.7
      15.2
      13.2
      18.5
      14.4
      21.7
      Received Oral Sex
      17.3
      13.2
      21.8
      17.2
      24.3
      18.5
      Vaginal Intercourse
      13.7
      16.0
      20.2
      20.8
      20.5
      22.6
      Anal Intercourse
      1.7
      2.3
      4.4
      4.3
      4.7
      5.5
      Any partnered sexual behavior
      22.1
      22.8
      27.4
      28.3
      27.6
      29.2
    • At the ages 15–17, about 13 percent of males and 11 percent of females had had heterosexual oral sex but not vaginal intercourse. (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)
    • At ages 18–19, about 11 percent of males and 9 percent of females had had oral sex but not vaginal intercourse. (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)
    • Among men aged 15-19 years, 45.1% reported no partners in the last 12 months, 29.7% reported one partner of the opposite sex in the last 12 months, and 21.8% reported two or more partners of the opposite sex in the previous year. (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)
    • Among women aged 15-19 years, 42.9% reported no partners in the last 12 months, 30.5% reported one partner of the opposite sex in the last 12 months, and 16.8% reported two or more partners of the opposite sex in the previous year. (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)
    • Among men aged 15-19, 2.4% reported having had same-sex sexual contact in the previous 12 months, and 4.5% reported having had same-sex contact in their lifetime. (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)
    • Among women aged 15-19, 7.7% reported having had same-sex sexual contact in the previous 12 months. (Mosher, Chandra, & Jones, 2005)
    • Between 1990 and 1998, gonorrhea rates among adolescents aged 15-19 decreased by 50% (DHHS, 2000).
    • Approximately 25% of the 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted infections occur among teenagers (CDC, 2000a).

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    Transgender

    Prevalence

    There is not a wealth of research on the prevalence of transgenderism and transsexualism. Research that has been done has tended to focus on a particular set of individuals: transsexual individuals who experience gender dysphoria and who present for gender-transition-related care at specialist gender clinics. This does not represent the numbers of other transgender or transsexual individuals who may not experience gender dysphoria and may not seek any kind of medical treatment. Some people consider the description of transgender and transexual as "gender identity disorder" to be controversial, stigmatizing non-conforming sexuality as a disorder requiring treatment. The American Psychiatric Association is currently debating the replacement of "gender identity disorder" with "gender dysphoria" in the DSM-IV.

      In Adults

    • A review of 8 transgender studies found rates for male-to-female transgenderism between 1 in11,900 to 1 in 45,000 WPATH, 2011.
    • The same review found rates for female-to-male transgenderism between 1 in 30,400 to 1 in 200,000. WPATH, 2011.
    • 1 in 30,000 individuals assigned male at birth seek treatment for Gender Identity Disorder. DSM-IV, 1994.
      In Children
      "Gender dysphoria during childhood does not inevitably continue into adulthood. Rather, in follow-up studies of prepubertal children (mainly boys) who were referred to clinics for assessment of gender dysphoria, the dysphoria persisted into adulthood for only 6-23% of children (Cohen-Kettenis, 2001; Zucker & Bradley, 1995). Boys in these studies were more likely to identify as gay in adulthood than as transgender (Green, 1987; Money & Russo,1979; Zucker & Bradley, 1995; Zuger, 1984). Newer studies, also including girls, showed a 12-27% persistence rate of gender dysphoria into adulthood (Drummond, Bradley, Peterson-Badali, & Zucker, 2008; Wallien & Cohen-Kettenis, 2008)." -cited in WPATH, 2011, 17.
    Sexual Attraction
    • Among male-to-female transgender people (MtF), 27 percent are attracted to men, 35 percent are attracted to women and 38 percent are attracted to men and women. Bockting, 2008.
    • Among female-to-male transgender people (FtM), 10 percent are attracted to men, 55 percent are attracted to women and 35 percent are attracted to men and women. Bockting, 2008.

    Vagina Size

    The average vagina measures 62.7 mm with a relatively large range (40.8–95 mm) and the width of the vagina varies along its length. The position of the cervix, marking the end of the vagina, can also vary at different points in a woman’s cycle or pregnancy.

    Barnhart, K. T., Izquierdo, A., & Pretorious, E. (2006). Baseline dimensions of the human vagina. Human Reproduction, 21(6), 1618-1622. http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/21/6/1618

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    FAQ Bibliography

    Alexander, Priscilla. Sex Work: Writings by Women in the Sex Industry. 1987. San Francisco: Cleis Press

    Allen, E. S., D. C. Atkins, et al. (2005). "Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual factors in engaging in and responding to extramarital involvement " Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 12(2): 101-130.

    Amato, P. R. and S. J. Rogers (1997). "A longitudinal study of marital problems and subsequent divorce." Journal of Marriage & the Family 59(3): 612-624.

    American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV-TR Fourth Edition.

    Atkins, DC, Baucom, DH, & Jacobson, NS (2001). Understanding infidelity: Correlates in a national random sample. Journal of Family Psychology, 15(4), pp. 735-749.

    Betzig, L. (1989). "Causes of conjugal dissolution: A cross-cultural study." Current Anthropology 30(5): 654-676.

    Figures from the clinical work of Dr. Walter Bockting, reported in an interview, May 24, 2008. Rosenblum, Gail. (2008). Myths and facts about transgender issues. Star Tribune: May 24, 2008.

    Boyers, DB, Kegeles, SM. AIDS risk and prevention among adolescents. 1991. Soc Sci Med Vol. 33(1), pp. 11-23.

    Bramlett, M. D. and W. D. Mosher (2002). "Cohabitation, marriage, divorce, and remarriage in the United States." Vital & Health Statistics - Series 23, Data from the National Survey of Family Growth 22: 1-93.

    Bridges, S.K., Lease, S.H., Ellison, C.R. (2004). Predicting sexual satisfaction in women: Implications for counselor education and training. Journal of Counseling & Development, Vol. 82(2), 158-166).

    Buzzell, T (2005). Demographic characteristics of persons using pornography in three technological contexts. Sexuality & Culture, 9(1), pp. 28-48.

    Call, V., Sprecher, S., & Schwartz, P. (1995). The incidence and frequency of marital sex in a national sample. Journal of marriage and family, 57(3), 639-652. http://www.jstor.org/stable/353919

    Cates, Willard. "Estimates of the Incidence and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States." 1999. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Volume 26(4).

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    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in Reportable Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States, 2007. 2007.www.cdc.gov/std/stats07/trends.htm

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in Reportable Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the United States. 2004. www.cdc.gov/std/stats04/trends2004.htm

    Center for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV and AIDS in the United States. 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: HIV Infection and AIDS in the United States, 2003. www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats.htm

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    Chandra A, Mosher WD, Copen C, Sionean C. (2011)Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual identity in the United States: Data from the 2006–2008 National Survey of Family Growth. National health statistics reports; no 36. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

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    Contraceptive Use. 2004. Alan Guttmacher Institute. New York: AGI. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_contr_use.html

    Cooper, A., Scherer, C., Boies, S., Gordon, B. Sexuality on the Internet: From Sexual Exploration to Pathological Expression. 1999. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice Vol. 30(2), pp. 154-164.

    Davis, C.M., Blank, J., Hung-Yu, L., & Bonillas, Consuelo (1996). Characteristics of vibrator use among women. Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 33(4), 313-320.

    Edwards, J. N. and A. Booth (1994). Sexuality, marriage, and well-being: The middle years. Sexuality across the life course. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation series on mental health and development: Studies on successful midlife development. A. S. E. Rossi. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press: 233-259.

    Ernulf, K. E., & Innala, S. M. (1995). Sexual bondage: a review and unobtrusive investagation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 24(6).

    Fisher, B., Cullen, F., Turner, M. (2000). The Sexual Victimization of College Women. U.S. Department of Justice Report. National Institute of Justice and Bureau of Justice Statistics. Washington, D.C. www.ncjrs.org/txtfiles1/nij/182369.txt

    Get "In the Know": 20 Questions About Pregnancy, Contraception and Abortion. (2005). Alan Guttmacher Institute. http://agi-usa.org/in-the-know/index.html.

    Glasier A, Gülmezoglu AM, Schmid GP, Garcia-Moreno C, Van Look PF. Sexual and reproductive health: a matter of life and death. The Lancet 2006; 368:1595-1607.

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    Janus, S., and Janus, C. The Janus Report on Sexual Behavior. 1993. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

    Kaiser Family Foundation, American Social Health Association. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America: How Many Cases and at What Cost? 1998. CA: KFF and ASHA.

    Karney, B. R. and T. N. Bradbury (1995). "The longitudinal course of marital quality and stability: A review of theory, methods, and research " Psychological Bulletin 118(1): 3-34.

    Kelly, E. L. and J. J. Conley (1987). "Personality and compatibility: A prospective analysis of marital stability and marital satisfaction." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52(1): 27-40.

    Kinsey, A., Pomeroy, W., Martin, C., and Gebhard, P. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. 1953. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

    Komisaruk, B., & Whipple, B. (2005). Functional MRI of the brain during orgasm in women. Annual review of sex research, 16, 62-86. http://psychology.rutgers.edu/~brk/published051106.pdf

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    Leitenberg, H., & Henning, K. (1995). Sexual fantasy. Psychological bulletin, 117(3), 469-496. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7777650 or http://www.defenseforsvp.com/Resources/Professional_Rpts_Misc/Leitenberg_Henning_1995_Sexual_Fantasy.pdf

    Lowe, Walter. The Playboy Readers' Sex Survey. 1983.

    Matthews, R. & Matthews, A.M. (1986) Infertility and involuntary childlessness: The transition to nonparenthood. Journal of Marriage & Family 48: 641-649.

    Meyers, M., R. Diamond, et al. (1995). "An infertility primer for family therapists: I. Medical, social, and psychological dimensions [Review}." Family Process 34(2): 219-229.

    Mitchell, K. J., K. A. Becker-Blease, et al. (2005). "Inventory of problematic internet experiences encountered in clinical practice." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 36(5): 498-509.

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