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How to Use This Encyclopedia

Overview of the Topical Structure of Country Chapters and the
Conventions Used in the Manuscript, with the Addendum:
Special Features of the Web Version of CCIES

The Editors

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[Note from the CCIES Website Editor:  Please send any additions, corrections, or updated information to:  Raymond J. Noonan, Ph.D.]


This encyclopedia contains virtually all of the information presented in the first four volumes of the International Encyclopedia of Sexuality published in 1997 and 2001, with fifteen additional countries and places. The original entries have been updated, typically by the original authors or by new authors or commentators; all have had some copyediting refinements. Some entries have been completely rewritten, as noted at the beginning of those chapters. We have endeavored to clearly notate updated material by enclosing the section, paragraph, or sentence in square brackets, starting with Update or Comment followed by the year it was written, and ending with the appropriate author. In some cases, it serves to modify the existing material when we have kept the original information in context for historical comparison; at other times, it expands the information. In most chapters, some sections were written by specific authors (or one of the editors), whose name or names appear at the beginning of the section.

The information on each country in this encyclopedia is organized mostly according to the standard outline below. The thirteen major headings are also listed on the first page of each chapter with the appropriate page numbers for that country. The reader interested in drawing comparisons on specific issues between different countries will find page references for specific topics and refinements, beyond the major headings, in the Index at the end of this volume. Checking this index under a specific topic—premarital sex, teenage pregnancy, puberty rites, or sexual harassment, for example—the reader will find page references that facilitate comparisons among the five-dozen countries included in this volume.

  1. Demographics and a Brief Historical Perspective
    1. Demographics
    2. A brief historical perspective
  2. Basic Sexological Premises
    1. Character of gender roles
    2. Sociolegal status of males and females
    3. General concepts of sexuality and love
  3. Religious, Ethnic, and Gender Factors Affecting Sexuality
    1. Source and character of religious values
    2. Character of ethnic values
  4. Knowledge and Education about Sexuality
    1. Government policies and programs
    2. Informal sources of sexual knowledge
  5. Autoerotic Behaviors and Patterns
    1. Children and adolescents
    2. Adults
  6. Interpersonal Heterosexual Behaviors
    1. Children
    2. Adolescents
    3. Adults
             Premarital relations, courtship, and dating
             Sexual behavior and relationships of single adults
             Marriage and family
             Cohabitation and monogamy
             Divorce, remarriage, and serial monogamy
             Extramarital sex
             Sexuality and the physically disabled and aged
             Incidence of oral and anal sex
  7. Homoerotic, Homosexual, and Bisexual Behaviors
    1. Children and adolescents
    2. Adults
  8. Gender Diversity and Transgender Issues
  9. Significant Unconventional Sexual Behaviors*
    1. Coercive sex
             Child sexual abuse, incest, and pedophilia
             Sexual harassment
    2. Prostitution
    3. Pornography and erotica
    4. Paraphilias
  10. Contraception, Abortion, and Population Planning
    1. Contraception
    2. Teenage (unmarried) pregnancies
    3. Abortion
    4. Population programs
  11. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS
  12. Sexual Dysfunctions, Counseling, and Therapies
  13. Sex Research and Advanced Professional Education
    1. Graduate programs and sexological research
    2. Sexological organizations and publications
  14. Important Ethnic, Racial, and/or Religious Minorities
  15. References and Suggested Readings

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RAYMOND J. NOONAN, Ph.D., CCIES Website Editor

[The Editors of the Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality (CCIES) have endeavored to maintain the congruence of the electronic version on the Web at The Kinsey Institute with the printed volume. Our goal was to present it as it was published. Eventually, as we get funding to update and expand this resource, we will begin posting new and revised material. In the meantime, this version contains some unique features, particularly with the navigation links, available only on the Web. For example, within the various chapters, you may click on the names of the individual authors just after the chapter title to see their brief biographies in the Contributors and Acknowledgments chapter. Vice versa, you may browse the contributors in that section and click on the links (typically the country name) to go directly to their chapters or sections (for the USA and UK chapters) elsewhere in the book. Similarly, as in the footnote below, you may click on the astericks in the text to go directly to the footnotes, or click on the astericks in the footnotes to return to the referring material in the text. We have done the same for tables, although both typically appear right after the paragraph that refers to them. Periodically, there are also links to other chapters with additional or related information. For example, this is the case with several countries in the Last-Minute Developments chapter, which contains updated material in the book that was included after the country chapter had been typeset. Eventually, we plan to use the same convention with the new and revised updates noted above. We have included title sidebars that remain visible to the left in all chapters so you will know which chapter you are currently in as you follow links within the book.

[We have also programmed some of the citations of websites in the text to open a new browser window with those websites. Time constraints have not allowed us to do more of them. Where email addresses are given for authors, we have refrained from programming “mailto:” links, and have surrounded the “@” sign with spaces to avoid the automated trolling for addresses often used by “spammers.” (We have, however, provided clickable email addresses for the Editors.) Should you wish to email an author, just highlight and copy and paste the address into your email client, then remove the spaces around the “@” sign. Given the fluid nature of the Internet, email and website addresses may no longer be valid, just as some of the data available here will have become outdated. We will notate them as they are brought to our attention, with revised addresses as we become aware of them.

[The brackets beginning the paragraphs in this Addendum reflect the convention noted in the above original section appearing in the book with regard to new material. Thus, this section dated 2006 did not appear in the original book. We will make minor corrections, such as spelling and punctuation errors, without notation (although an “Errata” section will be available at some point in the future). Being HTML-based, the text is fully searchable; as we have noted elsewhere, we have provided Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files (which are also somewhat searchable) for every chapter as a convenience for researchers who might wish to provide page numbers when citing material as it appears in the printed book. For those who wish to cite the Web version, we have included the URL in the introductory material at the beginning of each Web page, followed by the date on which the file was retrieved or printed for those whose bibliographic style manual requires it. (As an added convenience for those so inclined, we have included distinctive CCIES Icons, which can be used to organize downloaded files or links to the website right on your desktop.)

[Finally, we have tagged each major section of every country with a “target ID” or “anchor name” to enable efficient linking to specific sections, should one wish to do so, such as in a blog, or to provide more-specific bibliographic citations. The section headings are followed by the symbol'Link-to-this-section' symbol used in the manuscript, which will show or hide the URL for that section (try it at the section head above). Periodically, we will have a “see Section X” in the current or in another chapter to which readers may click if they desire, referred to above, which uses these target anchors. As noted above, the book Index, which also uses this feature, is a useful tool for browsing specific topics. However, instead of linking to specific page numbers in the various countries, it links to the major sections within which that page number falls. Further, as noted on the website’s entry page, this million-and-a-half-word volume will be posted serially according to a Projected Posting Timeline. As such, with an eye to the future and to stay organized, as we were coding the documents, we have linked at times to sections in countries that may not yet have been posted, as we have done in the country listing in the main table of contents (although there we have bolded the ones that are currently available). Links to countries that are not yet available will bring you back to the timeline. Visit our CCIES News page to keep up with news, announcements, and events that may be of interest to users of this resource.

[I would like to take this opportunity to thank Steven Shyu, who designed the CCIES at The Kinsey Institute website and programmed the original style sheet, who was then able to implement some of the special refinements, such as the RSS Newsfeed, that I envisioned for this site. I would also like to thank Jennifer Bass, M.P.H., Head of Information Services at The Kinsey Institute, and Evander Lomke, our editor at Continuum International in New York, for their assistance in making this site a reality. Finally, my thanks go to Bob Francoeur for bringing me into this project when I was still a struggling doctoral student not so many years ago. (End of Addendum by R. J. Noonan)]

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*In Section 8, Significant Unconventional Sexual Behaviors, we consider coercive sexual behaviors (rape, sexual harassment, and child sexual abuse), prostitution, pornography, paraphilias, and fetishes. As a general rule, sexologists and the general public tend to view heterosexual relations between consenting adults in an ongoing relationship, such as marriage, as the norm. It is true that such sexual relations are the modal pattern or norm in every culture. However, the earlier reviews of premarital sex, extramarital sex, alternative patterns of marriage, homosexuality, and bisexuality in Sections 5 and 6 serve to illustrate that, in any country, variable percentages of people engage in sexual behaviors which depart from this assumed “conventional” norm. Sexologists have struggled for some time to develop acceptable terminology to describe these “other” sexual practices. “Unconventional behaviors” appears to be the least judgmental and restrictive label for “other behaviors,” and definitely preferable to other labels such as “sexual deviance” or “sexual variance,” which convey a sense of pathology, dysfunction, or abnormality to such behaviors.

The social meaning of a specific “unconventional behavior” is defined by its situation and social context. Exhibitionism, for example, has one meaning when engaged in by a couple in private, a different meaning when engaged in on the stage of a “go-go” bar for patrons of that bar, and a third meaning when engaged in on a public street. Second, some of these behaviors are, in fact, quite common. Serious estimates cited in the United States chapter suggest that 10% of adult Americans engage in sadomasochist or bondage sex play, 15% of Americans have a foot or related fetish and three million Americans engage in “swinging.” Although the number of individuals who engage in any particular form of “unconventional behavior” may be small, it seems clear that in most countries, taken together and added to the forms of nonmarital sexual expression, that rather large percentages of people do participate in some “other” “unconventional” form of sexual practice.