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A Timeline of the Grand Tour

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1740: Canaletto issues Vedute etchings in Venice

1743: Gabriele Ricciardelli, View of the Bay of Naples

1746: Rediscovery of Paestum

1748: Redisovery of Pompeii

1752: Pompeo Batoni, Copy after Correggio, in Parma

1756: Edmund Burke publishes A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful

1756-63: Seven Years' War/French and Indian War

1760: George III ascends throne of England | Hubert Robert and Jean-Honoré Fragonard draw in the gardens of Tivoli

1762: Catherine II (the Great) becomes Empresss of Russia

1764: Johann Joachim Winckelmann publishes The History of the Art of Antiquity

1765: Joseph II of Austria becomes Holy Roman Emperor

1769-1771: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's grand tour of Italy. Italy was a center of music as well as art

1770s: Henry Fuseli lives and works in Rome

1773: Boston Tea Party

1774: Louis XVI becomes king of France, First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia | Piranesi, Plan of Rome

1774-1775: Jens Juel joins Danish artistic community in Rome

1775-83: American War of Independence

1778: Vivant Denon publishes Travels in Sicily and Malta | Piranesi publishes Views of Paestum

1782-83: John Robert Cozens travels to Italy with William Beckford

1783: Peace of Versailles signed between Britain, France, Spain, and United States | William Gilpin publishes Observations on the River Wye Relative Chiefly to Picturesque Beauty

1784: Richard Cooper, Vesuvius

1785: British build roads in the Scottish Highlands

1786-88: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe goes on a grand tour of Italy, chronicled in his Italian Journey

1789: French Revolution begins, George Washington becomes first President of the United States of America

1790s: Jean-Thomas Thibault travels to Rome and Umbria

1790: Immanuel Kant publishes his Critique of Judgment, the basis for later studies of aesthetics

1791: Publication of Thomas Martyn's Guide to Italy, aimed at British Grand Tourists

1792: William Gilpin publishes Three Essays on tourism and sketching | Joseph Chinard sculpts bust of Vivant Denon

1794-1822: Reign of Mawlay Sulayman in Morocco; the country is closed to outsiders

1797: Napoleon invades the Venetian Republic

1798: Napoleon invades Egypt, bringing artists and scholars with him | Invention of lithography (a printmaking technique) by Alois Senefelder in Munich

1799-1814: Napoleon invades and occupies Florence

1802: Vivant Denon publishes Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt | J. M. W. Turner travels to Switzerland

1806: Holy Roman Empire dissolved

1807: Abolition of slave trade in British Empire

1809: Excavation of the Roman Forum begins | Lord Byron travels to Greece. Inspires Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (1812-18)

1809-22: Publication of Description de l'Egypte by French Academy in Cairo

1814: Alexander Nasmyth, A View in Glen Coe

1815: Napoleon defeated at Waterloo

1818-46: Edward Jones travels in Italy and Spain

1819: J.M.W. Turner's first visit to Italy

1820s: Caruelle d'Aligny works in Rome

1826: French chemist Nicéphore Niépce produces first surviving photographic image | Menai iron suspension bridge completed in Wales

1827: Adolphe Thiebault, walking tour in Wales

1830: Greece obtains independence from the Ottoman Empire | First modern railway using steam-powered trains opens in England

1830s: German archaeologists begin excavations in Greece (Athens and Olympia)

1830s-60s: Many American sculptors settle in Florence

1832-33: David Roberts travels in Spain and Morocco

1834: William Henry Fox Talbot invents a photographic process patented as the calotype in 1841

1834-35: Henry Bertie travels in Italy

1835: Henry Byam Martin arrives in Athens

1835-39: Steam-powered railways open in Belgium, Germany, Austria, Russia, France, Italy

1836: William Callow, walking tour in the south of France

1837: Victoria ascends the throne of Britain

1838: Regular transatlantic steamship voyages begin

1838-39: David Roberts travels in Egypt and Palestine

1839: Britain expands control in the Middle East

1840-60: George Loring Brown lives in Italy

1842: Charles-François Eustache's first trip to Egypt

1842 onwards: British and French archaeologists excavate ancient sites in the Ottoman Empire

1843: Sir David Wilkie's Sketches in Turkey, Syria & Egypt in 1840 & 1841 published

1845: Murray's Handbook for Travellers to Spain published

1845-46: George or Maria Sieveking travels in the Pyrenees

1846: Edward Lear publishes Illustrated Excursions in Italy

1847: Murray's Handbook for Travellers in Egypt published; English Lake District accessible by rail

1847-49: Jasper F. Cropsey studies and works in Italy

1848: Revolutions throughout Europe

1849: Maxime du Camp photographs ancient sites in Egypt, Palestine, and Syria

1850: Frédéric Bourgeois de Mercey publishes lithographs of Campania and Naples; John Gadsby Chapman moves to Rome

1850s: Düsseldorf Art Academy attracts numerous foreign students, including many Americans

1850s-90s: William Stanley Haseltine lives in Italy

1851: Samuel L. Gerry travels in Switzerland

1851-53: John Ruskin publishes The Stones of Venice

1852: Railway opens in Alexandria, Egypt

1854-56: James Robertson photographs in the Mediterranean

1857-59: Francis Frith makes three photographic expeditions to Egypt and the Near East

1858: British Raj established in India | Murray's Handbook for Travellers in Southern Italy published

1860s: Thomas Cook offers organized tours in Egypt and Palestine

1860: Robert Macpherson photographs the Roman Forum

1861: Unification of Italy | Edward Lear visits Lucca

1861-65: U.S. Civil War

1862: Prince of Wales (Edward VII) grand tour of the Eastern Mediterranean and North Africa accompanied by Francis Bedford

1865: Thomas Ball settles in Florence

1866: Edward Lear visits Cattaro; Julius Lange paints Alpine Landscape

1866-78: John O'Brien Inman lives in Italy

1867: Austro-Hungarian Empire established | First organized package cruise from the U.S. to Europe; Mark Twain satirizes this voyage in The Innocents Abroad

1869: Suez Canal opens facilitating travel between Europe and India

1870s: Munich's art academy takes over as Germany's premier art school; again, many Americans enroll as students | Now economically viable, steamship travel encourages more transatlantic tourism

1870-71: Franco-Prussian War. See Bacon | François B. de Blois studies in Naples.

1871: Unification of Germany

1877: Charles Herbert Moore visits Florence

1878: France gains control of Tunisia | Edwin Lord Weeks visits Morocco

1879: Northern Algeria becomes a French colony

1879-80: James McNeill Whistler produces etchings in Venice

1881: Henry Bacon visits Venice

1882: Egypt becomes a British protectorate | St. Gotthard Railway Tunnel opens in the Swiss Alps, replacing the overland pass

1886: A. A. Aubert visits Egypt

1888: George Eastman invents the Kodak #1 camera, expanding photography's accessibility to amateurs

1889: The Orient Express, offering rail service between Paris and Istanbul, begins operation

1890s: Jean-Léon Gérôme issues archaeologically inspired sculptures; Denman Waldo Ross travels in North Africa

1890: Lucien W. Powell visits Venice. H. B. Warren visits Florence

1894: American Academy established in Rome

1895: H. B. Warren visits Athens

1897: Alphonse Mucha issues Monaco-Monte Carlo poster; Edward Darley Boit settles in Italy, purchasing a Tuscan villa, Alice Schille travels in Europe and the Middle East

1904: Edith Wharton publishes Italian Villas and Their Gardens

1905-13: Emergence throughout Europe of avant- garde artistic movements, including Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, and Expressionism

1909: Henry James publishes Italian Hours

1910: Jane Peterson travels in Egypt

1911: Libya becomes an Italian colony

1912: Morocco becomes a French protectorate; S.S.Titanic sinks

1914: Outbreak of World War I

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