332 BCEgypt is conquered by Alexander the Great who founds its new capital of Alexandria. Alexandria becomes a great Hellenistic city under the reign of the Macedonian Greek dynasty of the Ptolemys.
31/30 BCEgypt is added to the Roman Empire after the defeat at Actium of Cleopatra, the last Ptolemaic queen.
AD 40/49According to tradition, St. Mark brings Christianity to Egypt.
AD 313Christianity is recognized as the official religion of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine.
AD 330Constantine moves his capital eastward to the Greek-speaking city of Byzantium, which he renames Constantinople.
AD 395Egypt becomes part of the eastern Empire, known to us now as the Byzantine Empire, when at the death of Emperor Theodosius, the Empire is divided between his two sons.
AD 451Following the Council of Chalcedon, the Coptic church isolates itself on doctrinal grounds from other Christian churches.
AD 527 - 565The Byzantine Empire reaches its zenith under Emperor Justinian.
AD 535Justinian closes the Temple of Isis at Philae on Egypt's Nubian border.
618 - 28Egypt is occupied by the Sassanian Persians.
640/42Egypt is conquered by the Muslim Arabs.