Geological Carbon Sequestration

CO2-feldspar-water Reaction Kinetics (field, experiments, and modeling)

·         Zhu, C., Lu, P., Zheng, Z., Ganor, J., Coupled Alkali Feldspar Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation in Batch Systems: 4. Numerical modeling of reaction path. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. . v.74, pp. 3963-3983, Doi:10.1016/j.gca.2010.04.012.

·         Zhu, C., and Lu, P. (2009) Alkali Feldspar Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation in Batch Systems: 3. Saturation states of product minerals and reaction paths. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. v. 73 (9),3171-3120. doi: 10.1016/j.gca.2009.03.015.

·         Lu, P., Zhu, C., Coupled alkali feldspar dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation in batch systems: 2 Effects of CO2 and implications for carbon sequestration.  To be submitted to Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.

·         Fu, Q., P Lu, H. Konishi, R. Dilmore, H. Xu, W. E. Seyfried, Jr., and C. Zhu. (2009) Coupled alkali-feldspar Dissolution and Secondary Mineral Precipitation in Batch Systems: 1. New Experimental Data at 200°C and 300 bars. Chemical Geology, 91(3), 955-964.

·         Georg, R. B., Zhu, C. Reynolds, R.C., and Halliday, A.N. (2009) Stable silicon isotopes of groundwater, feldspars, and clay coatings in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona, USA. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 73, p. 2229-2241.

·         Hereford, A. G., Keating, E., Guthrie, G., Zhu, C., (2007) Reactions and reaction rates in the regional aquifer beneath Pajarito Plateau, north-central New Mexico. Environmental Geology, v. 52, No. 5, p. 965-977. DOI: 10.1007/s00254-006-0539-z.

·         Ganor, J., Lu, P., Zheng, Z., and Zhu, C., (2007) Bridging the gap between laboratory measurements and field estimations of weathering using simple calculations. Environmental Geology. v.53, No.3, p.599-610. DOI 10.1007/s00254-007-0675-0.

·         Zhu, C., Veblen, D.R., Blum, A.E, Chipera, S. (2006) Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona: Electron microscopic characterization. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 70, no.18, 4600-4616, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.07.013.

·         Zhu, C. (2005) Feldspar dissolution in saturated aquifers: In situ rates. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 69, No.6, 1435-1453.

·         Zhu, C., A.E. Blum, D.R. Veblen (2004) Feldspar dissolution rates and clay precipitation in the Navajo aquifer at Black Mesa, Arizona, USA. Proceedings of the 11th Water/Rock Interaction Conference, Saratoga Springs, New York, pp. 895-899.

Laboratory Experiments on Host Rock Reactivity and Caprock Integrity

·         Liu, Faye (Yifei), P. Lu, C. Griffth, S.a W. Hedges, C. Zhu, CO2-caprock-brine interaction: Reactivity Experiments on Eau Claire Shale and a review of literature. Submitted to The International Journal of Green House Gas Control.

·         Lu, P, Fu, Q., Seyfried, W.E. Jr, Hereford, A.G., Zhu, C. (2010) Navajo Sandstone-Brine-CO2 interaction: Implications for Geological Carbon Sequestration. Environmental Earth Sciences, 62 (1): 101-118doi:10.1007/s12665-010-0501-y


CO2 and Co-injectant Solubility (impurities in CO2 streams)

·         Ji, X. and Zhu, C. (2010) Modelling of phase equilibria in the H2S-H2O system with statistical associating fluid theory. Energy & Fuels v. 24, 6208-6213. DOI:10.1021/ef100847j.

·         Hu, J, Duan, Z, Zhu, C., and Chou, I., (2007) PVTx properties of the CO2-H2O and CO2-H2O-NaCl systems below 647K: Assessment of experimental data and thermodynamic models. Chemical Geology, v. 238, p.249-267.

·         Duan, Z., Sun, R, Liu, R, and Zhu, C. (2007) Accurate thermodynamic model for H2S solubility in pure water and brines. Energy & Fuels, v. 21, 2056-2065.

·         Duan, Z., Sun, R., Zhu, C. and Chou, I., (2006) An improved model for the calculation of CO2 solubility in aqueous solutions containing Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, and SO42-. Marine Chemistry. v.98, 131-139.


Numerical Modeling of CO2 Migration, Partitioning, and Reactions with Reservoir Rocks

·         Liu, Faye (Yifei), P. Lu, C. Zhu, Y. Xiao, Coupled reactive transport modeling of CO2 Sequestration in the Mt. Simon Sandstone Formation, Midwest U.S.A. The International
Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2010.08.008.

·         Strazisar, B. R., Zhu, C., and Hedges, S. W., (2006) Preliminary modeling of the long-term fate of CO2 following injection into deep geological formations. Environmental Geosciences v.13, no.1, 1-15, 2006.

·         Liu et al. Simulation of the CO2 plume migration and reactions in the Utsira Sandstone at the Sleipner Project, Norway (in collaboration with Univ. of Oslo)

Mineralogical or Above Ground Carbon Sequestration (U.S. Patent 7922792 "Method for Sequestration of CO2 and SO2 Utilizing a Plurality of Waste Streams". )

·         Dilmore, R., Lu, P., Soong, Y. , Allen, Hedges, H., Fu, J. K., Dobbs, C., Degalbo, A., Zhu, C. , (2008) Sequestration of CO2 in mixtures of bauxite residue and saline waste water. Energy & Fuels, v 22, No.1, p.343-353.

·         Soong, Y., Allen, D.E., McCarthy-Jone, J.R., Harrison D.K., Hedges, S.H., Baltrus, J.P., and Zhu, C., (2004) Preliminary experimental results of CO2 sequestration with brine. Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Water/Rock Interaction WRI-11, June 27-2 July 2004, Saratoga Springs, New York, 597-600.


Nuclear Waste Disposal, Metal and Metalloid Contamination

Uranium,  Acid mine drainage

Stubbs, J. E., Elbert, D. C., Veblen, D. R., Zhu, C., (2006) Electron microbeam investigation of uranium-contaminated soils from Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 2108-2113, 2006. [pdf]


Zhu, C., (2003) A case against Kd-based transport model: Natural attenuation at a mill tailings site, Computer & Geosciences, v.29, 351-359.


Zhu, C., Anderson, G. M., and Burden, D. S. (2002) Natural attenuation reactions at a uranium mill tailings site, western USA, Ground Water, v. 40, no. 1-2, 5-13.


Zhu, C. (2002) Estimation of surface precipitation constants from linear free energy correlation, Chemical Geology vol. 188, 23-32.


Zhu, C., and Burden, D.S., 2001, Mineralogical compositions of aquifer matrix as necessary initial conditions in reactive contaminant transport models, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology v. 51 no. 3-4, 145-161.


Penn, R.L., Zhu, C., Xu, H., and Veblen, D.R. (2001), "Iron oxide" coatings on sand grains from the Atlantic coastal plain: HRTEM characterization, Geology, v. 29, no. 9, 843-846.


Zhu, C., F. Q. Hu, and D. S. Burden (2001), Multi-component reactive transport modeling of natural attenuation of an acid ground water plume at a uranium mill tailings site. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, v. 52, no. 1-2, 85-108.

Radium (NORM)

Zhu, C. (2004) Coprecipitation in the barite isostructural family: 1. Binary mixing properties. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 68, No.16, 3327-3337. [pdf]


Zhu, C. (2004) Coprecipitation in the Barite Isostructural Family: 2 Numerical simulations of precipitation kinetics and reactive transport. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 68, No.16, 3339-3349. [pdf]


Martin, S, Zhu, C, Rule, J., Nuhfer, N. T., Ford, R., Hedges, S. Yee, S. (2005) A high resolution TEM-AEM, pH titration, and modeling study of Zn2+ coprecipitation with ferrihydrite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta v. 69, No.6, 1543-1553. [pdf]


Zhu, C., Nuhfer, N. T., and Lu, Peng, Kelly, Pb2+ coprecipitation with iron oxyhydroxide nano-particles. Submitted to GCA


Kelly, S., Lu, P., Newville, M.G., Bolin, T., Chattopadhyay, S., Shibata, T., Zhu, C., (2008) Molecular structure of Lead (II) coprecipitated with Iron(III) oxyhydroxide. Chapter 3 in Adsorption of Metals by Geomedia II: Variables, Mechanisms, and Model Applications. M. Barnett and D. Kent (ed.), pp. 69-96, Developments in Earth & Environmental Sciences 7, Elsevier.


Lu, P., Zhu, C. (2010) Arsenic Eh-pH Diagrams at 25 oC and 1 bar. Environmental Earth Sciences, v. 62(8), 1673 - 1683, DOI: 10.1007/s12665-010-0652-x.


 McKnight-Whitford, A., B. Chen, H. Naranmandura, C. Zhu, and  X. Chris Le, (2010) High concentrations of monomethylarsonous acid detected in contaminated groundwater.  Environmental Sciences & Technology. Doi 10.1021/es100273b.


  ‡Liu, Faye (Yifei) Le, C, McKnight-Whitford, A., Xia, Y., Wu, F., Elswick, E., Johnson, C.C., †Zhu, C., (2010) Antimony Speciation and Contamination of Waters in Xikuangshan Sb Mining and Smelting Area, China. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, DOI 10.1007/s10653-010-9284-z






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