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Articles on Writing Across the Curriculum—General

Listed below are articles on this topic from the Campus Writing Program library. Short summaries and citations are provided when available.

Ackerman. John M. "The Promise of Writing to Learn." Written Communication 10.3 (July 1993): 334-370.

Ackerman summarizes the history of WAC as adaptation of English model of language education, and then examines the proliferation of write-to- learn/WAC assumptions and practices (e.g., discipline-general models with centralized writing courses vs discipline-specific writing in many depts). Discusses theoretical warrants for writing as a unique mode of learning (as this idea is connected to WAC): writing is unique, writing forces integration/synthesis of ideas, writing promotes a detached critical perspective, and writing can be an introduction into a discourse community. Then reviews 36 research studies of writing to learn, finding mixed results of writing on retention and understanding of the written-about material later.

Anderson, Worth, Cynthia Best, Alycia Black, John Hurst, Brandt Miller, and Susan Miller. "Cross-Curricular Underlife: A Collaborative Report on Ways with Academic Words." College Composition and Communication 41.1 (February 1990): 11-36.

This article summarizes a research project conducted by Susan Miller and 5 of her writing students to determine the relationship between how learning is defined in "college writing" and how learning occurs in other introductory level courses. The most useful concept that the students applied from the writing course was the audience-centered approach. Most found that learning a teacher's expectations and values improved student performance. In addition, they suggest teaching notetaking skills. Their findings also showed that most students learn independently in other courses, as opposed to the interactive format of the writing class.

Bazerman, Charles. "Discourse Paths of Different Disciplines." Draft of presentation at MLA convention, 1982.

Refers to and summarizes Bazerman's 1981 article. Then relates those findings to what student writers need to know in writing in discplines: e.g., students writing in these disciplines need to understand these rhetorical moves in order to make the moves themselves. Students also need to see how writing in a discipline reflects thinking in that discipline; how writing is problem solving; how controlling one's own writing process relates to the kind of writing one produces.

Bean, John. "Write to Learn Tasks." Workshop materials from U. of Missouri- Columbia workshop, January 1988.

Describes types of assignments that can be used in a variety of disciplines. Lists 8 general principles that should be followed in designing assignments. Describes how assignments should be presented to students. Also includes an example of guided journal assignments for a psychology class.

Bean, John C., Dean Drenk, and F.D. Lee. "Microtheme Strategies for Developing Cognitive Skills." eaching Writing in All Disciplines. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, no. 12. Ed. C. W. Griffin. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1982. 27-38.

Describes the microtheme: a writing assignment designed to generate a very short essay. Microtheme assignments should have leverage: they should require a lot of thinking before a little writing. Justifies use of microthemes (quick to grade, promotes growth of specific types of thinking skills). Describes several categories of microthemes and grading criteria.

Bergman, Charles A. "Writing Across the Curriculum: An Annotated Bibliography." Writing Across the Curriculum. Current Issues in Higher Education (American Association of Higher Education monograph) 3 (1983-84): 33-38.

Lists approximately 48 articles, books, or issues of journals that deal with WAC. From the ERIC database.

Bertch, Julie and Delryn R. Fleming. "The WAC Workshop." New Directions for Community Colleges 73 (Spring 1991): 37-43.

Provides general guidelines for planning a WAC workshop. Discusses the participant's role, how to recruit participants, logistics for planing and scheduling the workshop, and some details of suggested workshop content. Specifically, the author encourage workshop topics such as the theoretical basis of writing-for-learning movement; how to design assignments to produce appropriate thinking skills; writing as process; and group and individual projects for faculty to develop useful assignments for their own courses. In addition, Bertch and Fleming provide a short list of potentially useful types of writing assignments gathered from the WAC literature.

Berthoff, Ann. "Speculative Instruments: Language in the Core Curriculum." The Making of Meaning: Metaphors, Models, and Maxims for Writing Teachers. Montclair, NJ: Boynton/Cook, 1981. 113-126.

Claims that teaching writing is teaching critical thinking. Three key points about this relationship are: observation is central to all disciplines, and learning to observe is learning to think critically; learning terms of art is learning concepts of a field; and all disciplines use rhetorical ideas of invention and disposition (organization). Discusses four uses of language in all disciplines: speaking, hearing, reading, writing. Can use writing to relate other aspects of language use in a course together (e.g. to relate lectures to texts).

Blair, Catherine Pastore. "Only One of the Voices: Dialogic Writing Across the Curriculum." College English 50.4 (April 1988): 383-395.

This article is part of the discussion about where WAC programs should be housed. Blair argues that WAC programs should not be housed in English depts. Instead, WAC should encourage dialogue among faculty from different disciplines, talking as equals. Administratively, a committee approach (made of faculty from a variety of depts) is suggested. For a contrary opinion, see Louise Z. Smith's article.

Bleeker, Gerrit, and Dev Hathaway. "Portfolio Assessment of Student Writing." Manuscript copy of conference paper on portfolio assessment at Emporia State University.

Summarizes a portfolio assessment project at Emporia State University. Portfolios were collected from 25 randomly chosen freshmen and sophomores, and evaluated by three faculty from different disciplines. Same faculty also evaluated writing samples from a standardized competency exam. Concluded that portfolios have advantages over standardized tests: they're longitudinal, not one-shot; they show strengths and weaknesses; they show writing for non-composition courses and different types of writing; encourages cooperation among faculty in different disciplines, is cost-effective, and may be fairer to minorities.

Bridgeman, Brent, and Sybil B. Carlson. "Survey of Academic Writing Tasks." Written Communication 1 (1984): 247-280.

Questionnaire responses from faculty members in 190 academic departments at 34 universities were analyzed to determine the writing tasks faced by beginning undergraduate and graduate students. In addition to English, six fields were studied: electrical engineering, civil engineering, computer science, chemistry, psychology, and MBA programs. Results indicated considerable variability across fields in the kinds of writing required and in preferred assessment topics.

Capossela, Toni-Lee. "Writing Across the Core Curriculum with Sequenced Assignments." No citation.

Describes a series of writing assignments that is sequenced from less to more complex rhetorical tasks.

Carpenter, C. Blaine, and James C. Doig. "Assessing Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum." Assessing Students' Learning. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, no. 34. Ed. J. H. McMillan. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988.

Defines critical thinking. Discusses several standardized tests to assess critical thinking. Then outlines efforts to define, assess, and teach/strengthen critical thinking at several colleges and universities.

Carson, Jay. "Recognizing and Using Context as a Survival Tool for WAC." WPA: Writing Program Administration 17.3 (Spring 1994): 35-47.

Carson offers suggestions on how colleges and universities can keep their WAC programs active at their universities by integrating WAC programs into the organizational structures of the specific institution: form WAC study groups; lobby for departmental status of program; and reward faculty for participation in WAC program. Carson also stresses the importance of maintaining accurate records of all communication and events for the program; these records will allow you to create a history and fully evaluate the program.

Connelly, Peter J. and Donald C. Irving. "Composition in the Liberal Arts: A Shared Responsibility." College English 37.7 (March 1976): 668-670.

This article describes summer seminars on writing that were held at Grinnell. Each seminar was attended by 6 faculty from various departments and led by 1 English faculty member. In each seminar they discussed the purpose of papers the assign, and analyze samples submitted by each participant in hopes of improving assignments, and getting colleagues to share responsibility for writing. In these seminars they use a standard composition text to develop a common vocabulary. They also developed a list of danger signals in student prose writing, as well as definitions for five types of writing assignments: journal, epistle, note, essay, and report.

Cornell, Cynthia and David J. Klooster. "Writing Across the Curriculum: Transforming the Academy?" WPA: Writing Program Administration 14.1-2 (Fall/Winter 1990): 7-16.

WAC programs are struggling for survival, even though no one doubts the educational value of these programs, because they force the institution to reexamine its identity, and cause conflicts due to faulty assumptions about the educational process. Ultimately, WAC proponents are asking the academy to transform itself and shift the emphasis from research to teaching.

Cushman, Ellen. "The Rhetorician as Agent of Social Change." College Composition and Communication 47.1 (1996): 7-28.

While some critics believe that critical pedagogy can affect social change by giving students opportunities for cultural critiques, scholars would understand more about both social change and the classes of people meant to be empowered by literacy if teachers did volunteer. The author reflects on her experiences working in a predominantly African American neighborhood in the vicinity of Rensselaer, looking at both how her ability to use language helped residents gain access to better housing, etc., and how her assumptions about language use and crossing social boundaries were often challenged.

Davis, David J. "Eight Faculty Members Talk about Student Writing." College Teaching 35.1 (1987): 31-35.

Studied 8 faculty members at a large Midwestern state university, all of whom use writing in their courses. Interviewed the faculty members, sat in on their courses, and collected syllabi, papers, etc. The professors expressed similar attitudes about the importance of writing for clear thinking. Their assignments varied. Few discussed writing in class or held individual conferences. All were frustrated by students' poor writing skills. All felt a lack of institutional rewards and a lack of support by administration.

Dick, John A. R., and Robert M. Esch. "Dialogues Among Disciplines: A Plan for Faculty Discussions of Writing Across the Curriculum." College Composition and Communication 36.2 (May 1985): 178-182.

In the context of planning and organizing linked courses between English department faculty and faculty in other disciplines, this article discusses the questions about writing in a discipline that an English department person might want to ask. Answers to questions about nomenclature, audience, purpose, stylistic conventions, and contexts help faculty on both sides understand the writing better. Then use similar questions and ask professors as students, to discover professors' expectations about student writing.

Donlan, Dan. "Teaching Writing in the Content Areas: Eleven Hypotheses from a Teacher Survey." Research in the Teaching of English 8 (Fall 1974): 250-262.

Describes a survey study of K-12 teachers' use of writing assignments. Results: upper level grades get longer writing assignments. Shorter assignments made more often than longer ones. Assignments tend to be frequent; certain types of assignments more frequent than others. Results also describe commenting/grading practices and responsibility for teaching writing.

Duerden, Sarah T., Jeanne Garland, and Christine Everhart Helfers. "Profile Assignment." Strategies for Teaching First-Year Composition. Eds. Duane Roen and others. Urbana, IL: NCTE. 2002. 152-164.

Profile assignments not only make students think more about their future profession, but also both underscore that writing is for a purpose and teach how to incorporate quotations in a natural fashion. A sample assignment for engineering students is provided, as well as two variations suitable for non-engineering students. Some supplemental student information is likewise provided.

Eblen, Charlene. "Writing Across the Curriculum: A Survey of A University Faculty's Views and Classroom Practices." Research in the Teaching of English 17.4 (December 1983): 343-348.

Surveys 266 faculty at Univ. of Northern Iowa. Results: faculty viewed overall quality of ideas, organization, and development as more important than grammar or coherence. Biggest problems with student writing: faulty logic, inappropriate order of ideas; and poor mechanics.

Elbow, Peter. Writing for Learning -- Not Just for Demonstrating Learning. University of Massachusetts Amherst, 1994. 1-4.

While writing to demonstrate learning is the most common goal of any writing assignment, instructors may also wish to encourage assignments that involve writing to learn. These low-stakes assignments will allow students to explore ideas and issues that will help guide them in their learning. Suggestions are offered for different types of write-to-learn assignments. Full text at:

Emig, Janet. "Writing as a Mode of Learning." College Composition and Communication 28 (Feb. 1977): 122-127.

Argues that writing is a unique mode of learning. Although similar to talking, writing is different in that it is an artificial technology. Describes unique correspondences between writing and learning: both are multirepresentational, integrative, self-rhythmed; in both cases feedback (immediate and long-term) is important; and for both, connections are important.

Ernst, Karen. "Art in Your Curriculum." Teaching Pre-K-8. October 1985. 32-33.

Ernst gives an overview of her own art classroom technique. A workshop approach to teaching art in grade school takes away emphasis from producing "art" and places more emphasis upon the thinking and learning necessary for creating art. Students are asked to write about what they learn, thus enabling the teacher to gain insight into their progress and the motivations behind their choices in subject and medium.

Faery, Rebecca Blevins. "Teachers and Writers: The Faculty Writing Workshop and Writing Across the Curriculum." Writing Program Administration 17.1-17.2 (1993): 31-42.

Explains the importance of holding faculty writing workshops as part of WAC. Some of benefits include interdisciplinary interaction between faculty; discussion of the different kinds of writing expected in different disciplines; redefinition of what it means to "teach writing" as moving beyond grammar to rhetoric; and exploration of the role of scholar as writer.

Farris, Christine and Raymond Smith. "Writing-Intensive Courses: Tools for Curricular Change." Writing Across the Curriculum: A Guide to Developing Programs. Ed. Susan H. McLeod and Margot Soven. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. 1992. 71-86.

Writing-intensive courses help faculty to engage students' intellectual abilities beyond those required of the lecture/test/lecture course pattern commonly found in large research institutions. For these courses to be successful, they should be under the faculty member's ownership, but centrally coordinated by a WAC program that acts as in an administrative and advisory capacity. The WAC program can help establish criteria for writing-intensive courses, consult in the design of the courses, give incentives for teaching the courses, and provide grading support. In return, the cooperation between WAC program and faculty helps the WAC personnel in keeping the program vital and responsive to changing needs.

Farmer, D. W. "Achieving Excellence Through Change" and "Curriculum as anIntegrated Plan of Learning-I." Enhancing StudentLearning: Emphasizing Essential Competencies in Academic Programs. WilkesBarre, PA: King's College, 1988. 35-109.

Describes the outcomes-oriented core curriculumimplemented at King's College. Implementation of corecurriculum modeled on WAC program, with workshops, cross-dsciplinary facultycommittees, etc. Core curriculum includes transferable skills of liberallearning (critical thinking, creative thinking and problem solving, effectivewriting and oral communication, quantitative analysis, etc.) and core coursesin civilization, foreign cultures, social science, humanities, and naturalscience.

Fish, Stanley. "Being Interdisciplinary Is So Very Hard toDo." Profession (1989): 15-22.

Argues that interdisciplinarity is an outgrowth of "left cultural theory"--specificallythe idea that disciplines are distinct nonoverlapping entities. Interdisciplinarity seeks to eliminate the boundaries between disciplines. But this is impossible, Fish argues— interdisciplinarity won't eliminate theboundaries; it will only redraw them. Either one discipline will annex another,or one discipline borrows methods or theories from another, or a new discipline is created, which takes as its subject the study of disciplines.

Freisinger, Randall R. "Cross-Disciplinary Writing Workshops: Theory andPractice." College English 42.2 (Oct. 1980): 154-166.

Begins withBritton's distinction between the poetic, expressive, and transactionalfunctions of language, focusing on the expressive and transactional functions. Students need experience with both functions of writing to become good writers. But most educational uses of writing are only transactional, not expressive. The lack of emphasis on expressive writing is related to the poor cognitive development of high school and college students. To get faculty to understand the importance of expressive writing, use a WAC workshop.

Fulwiler, Toby. "The Friends and Enemies of Writing Across theCurriculum" Presented at Conference of College Composition andCommunication,March 22, 1990. 1-6.

Disciplinarity, epistemology, mission, orthodoxy, and inertia--all conspire against the underlying principles of WAC. Because it deals with the basics of the composing process, and because teaching that process undergoes tremendous change, WAC is innovative by nature. It challenges passive learning, routine training, and rigid disciplinarity. Thus, the real friend to WAC is its ability to get into the nature of the academic process through its innovative practices.

Fulwiler, Toby. "How Well Does Writing Across the CurriculumWork?" College English 46.2 (Feb.. 1984): 113-125.

Discusses the author's experiences with WAC programs at several universities. Discusses what didn't work: use of "expressive" to mean journals; resistance of some faculty, or problematic disciplines (philosophy, English, math); how to incorporate writing into large classes; unwillingness to use peer review;where WAC works (and with whom) and where it doesn't. Also discusses unexpected benefits.

Fulwiler, Toby. "Journals Across the Disciplines." English Journal 69.9 (Dec.1980): 14-19.

Argues for the use of journals, as a form of expressive writing, in all disciplines. Suggests that expressive writing is not valued, but should be as a way of increasing the amount of writing that students do and exposing them to different forms of writing. Describes academic journals and personal journals.

Fulwiler, Toby. "Showing, Not Telling, at a Writing Workshop." College English 43.1 (January 1981): 55-63.

Fulwiler discusses one strategy for getting professors in other disciplines besides English to incorporate writing into their classrooms: an off-campus workshop. In this workshop, the leader could "show" the other teachers the value of writing by having them do a variety of writing tasks rather than just "tell" them. Fulwiler describes 5 portions of a workshop: exploring, journal writing, theory, responding to writing, and composing.

Fulwiler, Toby. "Writing Across the Curriculum at Michigan Tech." WPA: Writing Program Administration 4.3 (Spring 1981): 15-20.

Fulwiler argues that students will value the importance of writing if it's valued in all the disciplines outside English. He then describes the WAC program at Michigan Tech by outlining the program requirements and offering a detailed description of the faculty workshops. In addition, there is a "Comment" by Ann Raines that follows the article.

Geisler, Cheryl. "Literacy and Expertise in the Academy." Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 1.1 (1994): 35-57.

The difference between novice and expert lies in the ways in which they negotiate different "problem spaces," one which is used to explore domain content of a field and the other which is used to consider a field's rhetorical dimensions. These spaces are collapsed in the general education process, so that students see texts as meaning what they say, without considering the rhetorical dimensions of knowledge representation. The move across the "Great Divide" from lay knowledge to expertise comes with the realization of the interplay between the domain content and rhetorical processes within a field. An understanding of the institutional processes behind the acquisition of expertise will help to make real educational reform possible.

Glick, Milton D. "Writing Across the Curriculum: A Dean's Perspective." WPA: Writing Program Administration 11.3 (Spring 1988): 53-58.

Glick discusses the implementation of WAC at University of Missouri-Columbia. He explains the requirements of this program and discusses faculty response to the writing workshops.

Gottschalk, Katherine and Keith Hjortshoj. "Designing Writing Assignments and Assignment Sequences." The Elements of Teaching Writing. Bedford/St. Martin's. Boston. 2004. 29-46.

Gives an overview of major issues in incorporating writing in classes: rhetorical considerations of assignment writing (subject, audience, purpose, etc.), defining student writing boundaries, and sequencing writing assignments for the course.

Gottschalk, Katherine and Keith Hjortshoj. "Strategies for Including Writing in Large Courses." The Elements of Teaching Writing. Bedford/St. Martin's. Boston. 2004. 145-161.

Examines the relationship between short assignments and course goals, suggesting that some kinds of writing may not need to be graded (or even read!). One of the more useful sections deals with how to be more efficient in grading and marking. The chapter also covers the effective use of institutional resources (teaching assistants, writing centers, etc.).

Gottschalk, Katherine and Keith Hjortshoj. "What Can You Do with Student Writing?" The Elements of Teaching Writing . Bedford/St. Martin's. Boston. 2004. 47-61.

Gives an overview of how to respond to student writing, including how to mark papers efficiently, how to consider grading goals, etc.

Greenberg, Karen L. "Assessing Writing: Theory and Practice." Assessing Students' Learning. New Directions forTeaching and Learning, no. 34. Ed. J.H. McMillan. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988. 47-59.

Describes methods for assessing writing in any discipline: holistic scoring, evaluative grid, portfolios, peer review and self-evaluation. Includes examples of all methods except portfolio evaluation.

Greig, Wm. Smith. "They Write, Therefore They Think?" Vassar Quarterly (Summer 1990): 47-59.

Briefly describes the "Freshman Course Program" atVassar. These courses are at the introductory level and required of freshman. They are taught in a variety of departments, and all include a writing component. Argues that Vassar freshmen usually already know the mechanics of writing; these courses get them to think while writing.

Griffin, C.W. "Programs for Writing Across the Curriculum: AReport." College Composition and Communication 36.4 (Dec. 1985): 398-403.

Summarizes the results of a survey sent to 400 American colleges asking them to describe their WAC program. The origins and organization of the WACprograms differ, but all have several components in common: a writing center, faculty workshops, and curricular changes (creating new writing courses or incorporating writing into current courses; creating new requirements). TheWAC programs also share some assumptions: about the importance of writing in all disciplines, that writing is learning, and that all departments need to teach writing.

Hagemann, Julie. "Writing Centers as Sites for Writing Transfer Research."Writing Center Perspectives. Ed. Stay, Byron L., Christina Murphy, Eric H. Hobson. Emmitsburg, MD: NWCA Press, 1995. 120-131.

To understand how undergraduates learn to write, composition specialists need to focus research on interdisciplinary writing transfer. The writing center provides an ideal site for this research because students will come to the center for a variety of classes. The tutorial records of an international student who took five different courses from different disciplines during the same semester provides an illustration of the different types of demands made by each discipline, and offers insight into the student's reactions. As writing-across-the-curriculum gains more ground, more students will be faced with juggling the demands of different discourses. Writing centers can help in understanding how students learn to do so.

Hamilton-Weiler, Sharon. "Writing as a Thought Process: Site of a Struggle." Journal of Teaching Writing 7 (1988): 167-179.

Grounded in the context of the British educational system, in which students study subjects in-depth over a period of 2-3 years before sitting a series of exams assessed by an external examiner, Hamilton-Weiler describes the various ways in which students and teachers in A-level coursework (equivalent to lower-level U.S. college courses) are forced to grapple with the conflict between individual response and authorized discourse. Through a series of anecdotes by students and teachers, Hamilton-Weiler shows that teachers are aware that examinations do allow for individual response and insight, but that examiners assume that such responses will be within the conventions of the specific discipline. As a result, students may feel frustrated because their responses, while commonsensical, are judged to be inadequate because they fail to bring the specific semantic and syntactic conventions to their work. A goal of the teachers, therefore, is to enable students to understand that the discipline-specific conventions can act as heuristics, allowing students to engage more fully with the material. Another result is that students may feel as if their own interests in a topic are immaterial, because they should study for the types of questions asked in the examination itself. Hamilton-Weiler concludes with an example from a biology class in which students were given tasks that asked for their intuitive responses, but then guided the students to transforming those responses into the discourse of the discipline, therefore using the tension between choice and convention as a dialectic.>

Harris, Muriel. "The Writing Center and Tutoring in WAC Programs." Writing Across the Curriculum: A Guide to Developing Programs. Eds. McLeod, Susan H. and Margot Soven. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1992. 154-174.

Argues that WAC instruction becomes more effective if it utilizes the resources of the Writing Center. The Writing Center can help facilitate WAC projects by coordinating projects involving various interests in the university constituency. Harris gives examples of how different Writing Centers help contribute to WAC goals, and offers suggestions on how to set up an effective Writing Center for WAC tutoring.

Herrington, Anne J. "Writing to Learn: Writing Across the Disciplines." College English 43.4 (Apr. 1981): 379-387.

Describes a project designed to train faculty from a variety of disciplines to integrate writing into their courses. Summarizes successful strategies: link writing assignments to course objectives, hopefully ones that go beyond recall of facts; sequence assignments and make a variety of assignments; carefully design assignment in advance; use evaluation that helps students learn from the writing.

Holt, Dennis. "Holistic Scoring in Many Disciplines." College Teaching 41.2 (1993): 71-74.

Outlines two methods used in holistic scoring: determining general standards for an assignment and making comparative judgements about quality. Explains adaptations for assessing writing in particular circumstances and across disciplines.

Howard, Rebecca Moore.  "Sexuality, Texuality: The Cultural Work of Plagiarism."  College English 62.4 (2000): 473-491.

Plagiarism  is difficult to define because the attitudes embodied in discourse about authorship reproduce values operating from a male, heterosexual hierarchy.   A better way to address academic honesty is to look at the specific textual practices involved: insufficient citation, failure to mark quotations, failure to acknowledge sources, etc.  Thus, instead of talking about plagiarism, and thus evoking the gendered discourse of the term, it would be better to categorize the activities as falling under fraud, citation, and repetition.

Huot, Brian. "Finding Out What They Are Writing: A Method, Rationale and Sample for Writing-Across-the-Curriculum Research." WPA: Writing Program Adminstration 15.3 (Spring 1992): 31-40.

Huot proposes a systematic means for talking to faculty in disciplines outside English to find out what students write for other course, what purpose these writing assignments have, and what faculty expectations are. The article describes a methodology based on "focused dialogues," or group interviews, with 4-6 faculty members from a department/school. Huot gives a detailed example of the results of his interviews with the School of Social Work.

Jeske, Jeff. "Creating the Institution-Specific Writing Guide." WPA: Writing Program Administration 16.3 (Spring 1993): 27-36.

Describes the creation and table of contents of a writing guide created for the author's college. Also mentions the benefits of creating such a guide (offers important information and resources, promotes a common language about writing, articulates common standards, encourages collaboration among departments.).

Jones, Robert and Joseph J. Comprone. "Where Do We Go Next in Writing Across the Curriculum?" College Composition and Communication 44.1 (February 1993): 59-68.

Jones and Comprone define and suggest solutions to the major problems facing WAC programs. They claim that one reason that WAC is not permanent is its failure to coordinate the administrative, pedagogical, and research aspects of programs. Their solutions include: centrally administering the program; linking faculty, grad students, and discipline-specific research across the curriculum with program development in WAC; and conducting interdisciplinary research into writing conventions and processes. In addition, Jones and Comprone describe a collaboration between engineering and humanities faculty at Michigan Technological University.

Kearns, Edward A. "Assignment Prompt." Strategies for Teaching First-Year Composition. Eds Roen, Duane and others. Urbana, IL: NCTE. 2002. 150-151.

Offers suggestions for using newspaper and magazine articles as a means to help students make the transition between personal narrative and more formal types of writing.

Kiniry, Malcolm and Ellen Strenski. "Sequencing Expository Writing: A Recursive Approach." College Composition and Communication 36.2 (May 1985): 191-202.

Kiniry and Strenski draw on their experience in UCLA's writing program to describe a new approach to sequencing assignments in composition courses. They describe 8 typical tasks that undergraduate writers do in all their courses, in a developmental sequence requiring more complex skills: listing, definition, seriation, classification, summary, comparison/contrast, analysis, and academic argument. Each successive skills requires repeating and reinforcing the earlier skills. In addition, they provide sample assignments which would require varying levels of each skill.

Kinneavy, James L. "Writing Across the Curriculum." Association of Departments of English Bulletin 76 (Winter 1983): 13-20.

Describes advantages and disadvantages of two major approaches to WAC: the single subject approach, in which students write in and for specific disciplines, and the centralized writing department approach, in which teachers (with backgrounds in rhetoric) teach general principles of argument, explanation, etc. that transcend disciplines and enable writers to write for general audiences. Argues for programs that offer aspects of both models.

Kirsch, Gesa. "Writing Across the Curriculum: The Program at Third College, University of California, San Diego." WPA: Writing Program Administration 12.1-2 (Fall/Winter 1988): 47-55.

Describes the WAC program at UCSD. Operates at lower-division level. Kirsch describes the types of courses offered, assignments, and standards. Summarizes students' evaluation of program and administrative issues, such as job descriptions of Teaching Assistants and Coordinator, and the role of faculty.

Knoblauch, C.H., and Lil Brannon. "Writing as Learning Through the Curriculum." College English 45.5 (Sept. 1983): 465-474.

Argues that WAC that emphasizes correct English, or that forces students to write only in prefabricated forms, ignores the idea of writing to learn. Points out discrepancies between views of knowing as active and actual teaching practices. Argues for the use of expressive rather than transactional writing, to avoid burden of correction and restriction on form and content of writing. Discusses value of journal assignments.

Lamb, Catherine E. "Initiating Change as a Writing Consultant." College English 45.3 (March 1983): 296-300.

Describes the author's experience as a consultant to faculty using writing in their courses. Mentions the types of services she has done and the feedback she has received.

Law, Joe. "Evaluating Writing Across the Curriculum."Composition Studies 26.1 (1998): 73-82.

Reviews William C. Rice, Public Discourse and Academic Inquiry (Garland Studies in American Popular History and Culture. New York: Garland, 1996); Barbara E. Walvoord, Linda Lawrence Hunt, H. Fil Dowling, Jr., and Joan D. McMahon, In the Long Run: A Study of Faculty in Three Writing-Across-the-Curriculum Programs. Urbana: NCTE, 1997; Kathleen Blake Yancey and Brian Huots, eds., Assessing Writing Across the Curriculum: Diverse Approaches and Practices. Perspectives on Writing: Theory, Research, Practice. Greenwich: ABlex, 1997. WAC assessment is often discussed from an insider's perspective, and both Walvoord et. al's and Yancey and Blake's text show this perspective with all of its inherent contradictions. Rice's book approaches WAC from an outsider's view.

Law, Joe. "Notes from Other Programs: Learning from Harvard." Writing Across the Curriculum 7 (January 1998): 2-3.

The 1992 Harvard Assessment Seminars report that students feel more engaged in courses for which writing is required. The responses from a survey of 365 undergraduates showed that most believe that writing should be emphasized during the junior and senior years, and that learning is most effective when writing is organized around a specific discipline. WAC programs need to take note of the Harvard findings.

Law, Joe. "Ongoing Writing Center Tutorials as Directed Studies: New Directions in Graduate Studies." no citation. Internal evidence points to this as part of a roundtable presentation.

Graduate student tutorials, especially those on a dissertation or thesis, are very similar to directed study in that the student often will meet with the same tutor over several sessions. By conceiving such tutorials as directed study, and perhaps by offering these sessions as directed study courses, writing centers may gain more allies from departments which might not otherwise consider the writing center as useful. Furthermore, such institutionalization of these types of tutorials may help improve the quality of graduate education.

Law, Joe. "Response to "Writing Center Theory and Practice" Session (Texas Association of Writing Centers, 2 Mar. 1990); or I'm Just a Postmodern Writing Center in a Modernist World." Texas Association of Writing Centers, 2 Mar. 1990. Presentation.

Responds to particular papers given at a roundtable session. Focuses upon how a writing center can "subvert the old order."

Law, Joe. "Serving Faculty and Writing Across the Curriculum." The Writing Center Resource Manual. National Writing Centers Association Press. no date.

This is section IV.4 - IV.10 of the Writing Center Resource Manual. Writing Across the Curriculum (WAC) programs generally involve the writing center at some level, and thus will bring faculty into closer (and more frequent!) contact with the writing center. This section covers six key areas that should be negotiated in working with faculty. These areas are: 1) defining the relationship between the writing center and WAC; 2) shaping faculty attitudes and expectations concerning the writing center; 3) providing special training to faculty and students; 4) locating and training tutors to work with specific disciplines; 5) dealing with increased workload as a result of WAC; 6) locating WAC resources for both the writing center and WAC faculty.

Law, Joe. "Starting New: Using Assessment to Shape and Promote a WAC Program." conference paper. n.d. 9 pp.

Part of what appears to be a roundtable discussion. Gives an example of how Wright State University drew up criteria for WAC assessment based on WAC goals, as perceived by a committee of ten faculty members drawn from a variety of disciplines. These assessment guidelines fell into three phases. The first phase, gathering data, was designed to focus on student writing outcomes while making instructor participation easy. In the next phase, data used from the assessment would be given to focus groups drawn from various university constituencies. The final phase would involve adapting the WAC program in light of what the groups would suggest. The phases would be ongoing and overlapping. Opposition to the plan showed a need to address positivism within the WAC context.

Law, Joe. Writing Across the Curriculum at Wright State University. A Brief Guide for Faculty.Wright State University. 1997. 31pp.

An introduction to the Writing Across the Curriculum program at Wright State University. Aimed at faculty, the guide explains the underlying assumptions of a WAC program, states WAC program policies, gives suggestions about assignments and grading, and lists resources for WAC teachers and students.

Law, Joe and Christina Murphy. "Writing Centers and WAC Programs as Infostructures: Relocating Practice within Futurist Theories of Social Change."unpublished conference paper. np. nd. Internal evidence suggests 1998.

New technology will affect the ways in which various university structures operate. Traditionally, WAC programs and writing centers have been housed in concrete, physical structures and work one-to-one with individuals. In the early 90s, however, information technology made it possible for people to interact virtually instead of physically. As educational institutions take more advantage of this technology, new pedagogical techniques will be needed to address the new environment. WAC programs and writing centers may be more adaptable to the new conditions simply because these programs have had a history of adapting pedagogy to individuals.

Leki, Ilona. "Coping Strategies of ESL Students in Writing Tasks Across the Curriculum." Tesol Quarterly 29.2 (Summer 1995): 235-260.

This study follows 5 ESL students in their first semester at a U.S. university in a variety of courses across several disciplines to identify 10 strategies these students use to complete their writing assignments. The bulk of the article presents specific examples from the students' experiences to illustrate the strategies.

Maimon, Elaine P. "Collaborative Learning and Writing Across the Curriculum." WPA: Writing Program Administration 9.3 (Spring 1986): 9-15.

Maimon follows Bruffee's definition of learning as an interactive socializing process in which teachers introduce students to the "conversation of culture." She suggests that collaborative learning is part of WAC, if we define writing as a process of critical thinking rather than merely "grammar across the curriculum". Maimon suggests that WAC can transform the college into a "collegium" by using collaborative learning in different forms: among faculty members; as a classroom procedure to help instructors in all disciplines handle paper load; to help students internalize the concept of audience; to create a community through writing acknowledgements; and as a means for creating partnerships between colleges and school districts.

Maimon, Elaine P. "Writing Across the Curriculum: Past, Present, and Future." Teaching Writing in all Disciplines. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, no. 12. Ed. C. W. Griffin. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1982. 67-73.

Discusses the history of the WAC movement from the mid-1970's. Relates WAC to changes in composition theory: new emphasis on process and on writing as a mode of learning. WAC workshops promote the idea of collaborative learning.

Maimon, Elaine P. "Writing in all the Arts and Sciences: Getting Started and Gaining Momentum." WPA: Writing Program Administration 4.3 (Spring 1981): 9-13.

Maimon notes the importance of reminding scholars in all departments that writing is a mode of scholarship in every discipline, that all instructors are responsible for teaching apprentice students the conventions of their discipline, and that eventually all teachers are teachers of composition. She goes on to suggest that we should revise composition courses to focus on the process of writing -- invention, drafting, and rewriting -- and to use cross-disciplinary readings.

Marius, Richard. "Writing Across the Curriculum."How Writers Teach Writing. Ed. Nancy Kline. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992. 191-206.

Argues that to teach reasoning we should have students write papers that require them to show that they've thought about an issue. Points out that many students are not good readers, and that their prose is boring and incomprehensible. Author describes how he changed his teaching--adding more writing and covering less, scoring papers holistically-- to address these problems.

McCleary, William J. "A Case Approach for Teaching Academic Writing." College Composition and Communication 36.2 (1985): 203- 212.

Introduces the "academic case approach" to assignment design, which uses case studies in a variety of disciplines. In each case study, some facts are presented, rules given, and questions asked which demand interpretation or analysis. Presents a theory for why this works: it forces the student to use, and hence grapple with and learn, semantic concepts.Article presents a number of example assignments, and discusses how to construct such an assignment.

McLeod, Susan. "Defining Writing Across the Curriculum." WPA: Writing Program Administration 11.1-2 (Fall 1987): 19-24.

McLeod defines the philosophical bases for WAC programs and how they exist in different institutions. The two approaches are cognitive, which focues on writing as a mode of thinking and learning, and rhetorical, which focuses on the contextual and social constraints of writing. Cognitive approaches lead to using journals and lots of ungraded writing assignments in the classroom; the rhetorical approach makes extensive use of collaborative learning and peer review. These approaches need not be mutually exclusive; program may incorporate both emphases. The remainder of the article outlines some of the elements of a WAC. She describes three types of courses, and three faculty roles.

McLeod, Susan H. "Writing Across the Curriculum: The Second Stage, and Beyond." College Composition and Communication 40.3 (Oct. 1989): 337- 343.

Presents results of a survey of all WAC programs in the US. States that half of respondents' programs were more than 3 yrs old, hence "second stage." Highlights importance of continued funding and faculty interest. Discusses how to follow up on early workshops, and how to develop other strategies for supporting faculty. Also describes WAC's impact on curriculum reform and administrative structure.

McLeod, Susan H. and Margot Soven. "What Do You Need to Start -- and Sustain -- a Writing-Across-the-Curriculum Program?" WPA: Writing Program Adminstration 15.1-2 (Fall/Winter 1991): 25-33.

McLeod and Soven note that as WAC is becoming institutionalized, it is often initiated by university administration. They present a variety of items needed for a WAC program to succeed: time, a program coordinator, money to reward faculty participation in workshops, a writing lab or tutoring program to serve as a support system for students and faculty, and an administrative structure to curricular change happens and remains in place. In addition, McLeod and Soven provide several steps for setting up a WAC program.

Mohrwels, Lawrence C. "The Impact of Writing Assignments on Accounting Students' Writing Skills." Journal of Accounting Education 9 (1991): 309-325

This article describes how writing was incorporated into two upper-level accounting courses, and compares the improvement in student writing between students in the writing-intensive course and students in a non-writing course. Using two different types of assessments (multiple choice test of writing skills and holistic rating of essay quizzes) Students in the writing courses showed statistically significant improvement in their writing , while students in the non-writing courses showed no such improvement. The article describes how writing was incorporated into the courses, how writing consultants were used, and the significance of the research results. Appendices include examples of writing assignments, as well as the pre- and post-writing quizzes used to assess improvement.

Moore, Leslie E., and Linda H. Peterson. "Convention as Connection: Linking the Composition Course to the English and College Curriculum." College Composition and Communication 37.4 (Dec. 1986): 466-xxx.

Presents an approach to WAC, and a model for a freshman year composition course, that involves teaching students how to use conventions in various disciplines. Points out that convention assumes shared knowledge between reader and audience, between writer and other writers, between writer and literature. Argues that faculty in English can teach conventions of other disciplines. Article describes a course that uses these principles, drawing on expertise of other faculty in various disciplines, but taught by English department faculty.

Nelson, Eric D. "Oh Tempura! Oh Morays! Non-Writing Faculty in the First-Year Writing Classroom." Composition Chronicle 11.2 (1998): 7-9

A classicist relates his experience in teaching first year writing to the issues involved in administering Freshman Development Programs. Development programs draw from a wide variety of faculty, but many non-English faculty are inexperienced in teaching composition. A series of workshops and seminars may help these faculty acquire a practical background in pedagogical techniques and theoretical underpinnings.

Nelson, Jane and Cynthia A. Wambeam. "Moving Computers into the Writing Center: The Path to Least Resistance." Computers and Composition 12 (1995): 135-143.

Nelson and Wambeam summarize their experience at the University of Wyoming in setting up a computer writing classroom and an online writing lab. They encourage writing centers to take a leadership role in collaborative projects to incorporate computers in the classroom, and also to avoid marginalization in their institutions. One benefit of online writing labs, they argue, is that more students, including part-time , disabled , or site-bound students, can use the services of the writing center.

Norgaard, Rolf. "Writing in Disciplinary 'Contact Zones': Redrawing the Connection Between Expertise and Community" Paper presented at the Conference on College Composition and Communication, March 23, 1995.

Traditional approaches to WAC incorporate accommodation to a "culture of expertise," in which the writing serves to socialize students to the culture of a discipline rather than to challenge the rhetorical burden of that discipline. Because disciplines can be seen as distinctive cultures, it is appropriate to use the term "contact zone" to describe the space where two disciplines meet. Writing in these zones encourages "interface discourse," discourse among experts whose expertise may not completely overlap (i.e. mathematicians and engineers). Incorporating this sort of writing has several implications for the relationship between expertise and community, as well as for the understanding of how knowledge is constructed.

Parker, Robert. "The 'Language Across the Curriculum' Movement: A Brief Overview and Bibliography." College Composition and Communication 36.2 (1985): 173-177.

Presents history of LAC movement--the use of all forms of language in various disciplines in K-12 classrooms. Points out that in US the focus is exclusively on writing (as in the WAC movement).

Parks, Steve and Eli Goldblatt. "Writing beyond the Curriculum: Fostering New Collaborations in Literacy." College English 62.5 (2000): 584-606.

Although WAC programs have played an important role in shifting university emphasis toward student learning, WAC needs to to look beyond the academy in order to help students and faculty see reading and writing in a wider social and political context than the college curriculum. The Institute for the Study of Literature, Literacy, and Culture at Temple University is an example of one WAC program that looks beyond the immediate institutional context. Through institutional cooperation with community resources (both educational and business), WAC has the potential to expand community awareness of the importance of literacy.

Press, Harriet Baylor. "Basic Motivation for Basic Skills: The Interdependent Approach to Interdisciplinary Writing." College English 41.3 (November 1979): 310-

Press explains the need for "interdependent" freshman composition courses that would coordinate the efforts of composition instructors with those of professors in a specific discipline's introductory course. She suggests that readings for the composition course would complement the material being taught in the other discipline, and that occasional classes should be team-taught.

Raimes, Ann. "Writing and Learning Across the Curriculum: The Experience of a Faculty Seminar." College English 41.7 (March 1980): 797-801.

Raimes recounts her experience at Hunter College where they did a faculty workshop on writing during the semester. This multidisciplinary seminar was paid for by grants releasing each faculty participant from one teaching course. But by taking it simultaneously to teaching other courses, the workshop became a practicum, using materials for and from the other classes being taught that semester. Her main suggestion is to move away from personal writing as soon as possible in writing courses, and focus on academic essays by bringing the curriculum into the writing classes.

Raines, Helon Howell. "Is There a Writing Program in This College? Two Hundred and Thirty-Six Two-Year Schools Respond." College Composition and Communication 41.2 (May 1990): 151-163.

Raines wants to challenge the myths about 2-year community and junior colleges, so she surveys the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges to determine what kinds of writing programs exist in these schools. She found no evident pattern; in fact it's rare that these schools have separate writing programs. Instead, most writing courses are "service" courses. Few have WAC programs of any sort, but several have writing labs.

Roen, Duane, and Stuart C. Brown, eds. Course By Course: Taking Writing Across the Disciplines.Unpublished manuscript from University of Arizona.

Chapters in this manuscript describe the uses of writing in a variety of disciplines at the University of Arizona, apparently in the mid-1980's. Interviews with faculty, descriptions of assignments, connections to relevant literature included.

Rose, Mike. "When Faculty Talk About Writing." College English 41.3 (November 1979): 272-279.

Rose recounts the results of UCLA's 1979 local writing conference. 96 faculty and staff participated in the workshop, which focused on the kinds of writing problems encountered in student writing, and the kinds of responses they made. Most agreedthat the key problems in writing were thesis, argument, evidence and organization, and most also agreed that writing shouldn't be the sole responsibility of the English department. To improve writing, Rose argues we should offer professional reward for writing research and instruction, develop new curricula, and design new evaluation schema.

Russell, David R. "The Cooperation Movement: Language Across the Curriculum and Mass Education, 1900-1930." Research in the Teaching of English 23.4 (Dec.1989): 399-423.

Describes the history of the Cooperation Movement, amovement in the early 1900's to encourage faculty in many disciplines to include language instruction in their curricula. Relates the CooperationMovement to other curricular reforms of the time, including the division of education into separate disciplines. Describes the decline of the movement,and its relation to the WAC movement.

Russell, David R. "Writing Across the Curriculum and the Communications Movement: Some Lessons from the Past." College Composition andCommunication 38.2 (May 1987): 184-194.

Describes the history of 2 earlywriting programs: one at Colgate 1949-1961, and the other at UC Berkeley 1950-1965. Notes similarities between these programs and many current WACprograms, in their views of writing and its place in instruction in alldisciplines. Argues that these programs failed to overcome obstacles that WACprograms today face: resistance by faculty in other departments to teachwriting, and their preference for research and graduate training overundergrad teaching. Discusses how these attitude problems might be overcome.

Russell, David R. "Writing Across the Curriculum in Historical Perspective: Toward a Social Interpretation." College English 52.1 (January 1990): 52-73.

Russell begins with the premise that literacy instruction, or a lack of it, has social consequences, and proceeds to describe the history of WAC programs to place it in historical perspective and assess its significance for advanced literacy. He argues that cross-curricular writing has never permanently changed academia because it resists the "compartmentalization of knowledge" which is the fundamental organizing principal of academia, and because it upsets the usual method of regulating access to certain social strata by suggesting there can't be a single gateway to learn writing.

Scheffler, Judith A. "Composition with Content: An Interdisciplinary Approach." College Composition and Communication 31 (February 1980): 51-57.

Scheffler explains how the Freshman Interdisciplinary Studies Program at Temple University works. The program takes place over the summer, offers both freshman composition and remedial writing courses, and links each writing course to a specific interdisciplinary academic course. Benefits include linking reading and writing skills for students, and collaborative teaching for faculty.

Segal, Judy et. al. "The Researcher as Missionary: Problems with Rhetoric and Reform in the Disciplines." CCC 50.1 (1998): 71-90.

WAC research has started to study rhetoric and genre in non-academic settings. Reporting back to those discourse communities, however, can take on the tone that the researcher is more qualified to discuss practices than the practitioner. For a practitioner in a non-academic setting, language is a transparent medium for content; for the rhetorician, though, language is something to look at in order to see assumptions about what is and what isn't important. WAC researchers need to show sensitivity to the practitioners' disciplinary expertise by collaborating or cooperating with the community being studied, by concentrating on problems deemed significant by that community, and by joining their conversations.

Sipple, Jo-Ann M. "A Planning Process for Building Writing-across-the-Curriculum Programs to Last." Journal of Higher Education 60.4 (1989): 444-455.

Outlines strategies for making a WAC program last: develop a forum (e.g., a writing board) to talk about WAC; articulate the theoretical underpinningsof the program; define goals and develop means to reach those goals; includeresearch in the program; decide where the program should live; document theplanning process.

Smit, David.  "Improving Student Writing."  IDEA Papers, 25 (Sept. 1991). 

Although instructors often bemoan the "crisis" in writing, the crisis has existed for over a hundred years, perhaps indicating that the crisis is more a function of attitudes and expectations than it is a result of how students write.  Still, most students do not write "well enough" because they spend less than 3% of class and homework time writing more than a paragraph.   Instructors can include assignments meant to foster workaday writing skills as well as develop more formal writing.  Suggested types of assignments are offered.  Full text is at

Smith, Leonora H., and Jeffrey Charnley. "Project Write Source Book." Writing Assignments from Faculty of the College of Agriculture andNatural Resources, Michigan State University. 1990.

A collection of effective writing assignments from a variety of disciplines at MSU andelsewhere. Includes short write-to-learn assignments, opportunities for professional writing, and applied writing.

Smith, Louise Z. "Why English Departments Should 'House' Writing Across the Curriculum." College English 50.4 (April1988): 390-395.

Argues thatEnglish departments should house WAC programs. After all, why should English departments hide their expertise in writing of all sorts? And English folks know how to analyze texts of all sorts. For a contrary view, see CatherinePastore Blair's article in College English.

Sokal, Alan. "A Physicist Experiments with Cultural Studies." Lingua Franca. May/June 1996. 62-64.

Sokal confesses that his article "Transgressing the Boundaries: Toward a Transformative Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity," which appeared in Social Text, was a parody. He indicates that the degree of unverified claims and assumptions should have indicated that the article was "liberally salted with nonsense," even though it conformed to the conventions of academic discourse and the ideology of the journal. Sokal points to several reasons for his parody, including the desire to show the dearth of critical reasoning in general, and the particular problem of denying the practicality of an external reality in favor of a reality made up of social constructs. This denial of any external reality is, Sokal claims, a result of the arrogance of postmodern literary theorists who apply theory to areas in which they have no expertise in order to put forth political agendas. Sokal does not take issue with the political agendas themselves, but with an academic subculture that ignores or disdains reasoned criticism.

Soven, Margot. "The Advanced Writing Across the Curriculum Workshop: The Perils of Reintroducing Rhetoric." Journal of Teaching Writing 12.2 (1994): 277-86.

Soven summarizes the difference in content between basic and advanced WAC workshops, and explains why the basic workshops are so well-received and the advanced workshops less so. She suggests that by focusing on the theoretical relationship between writing and critical thinking, the advanced WAC workshops pose more of a challenge to traditional writing assignments. The advanced workshops focus more on the use of exploratory discourse as a way to show that writing has different purposes and requires different critical thinking skills.

Soven, Margot. "Beyond the First Workshop: What Else Can You Do to Help Faculty?" New Directions for Teaching and Learning 36 (1988): 13-20.

Briefly summarizes history of WAC movement 1977-1987. Describes potential second stage WAC programs to follow-up initial WAC workshops, including new, more theoretical workshops, collaboration between English and other departments, co-authoring interdisciplinary in-house texts and newsletters, and increasing student involvement by training undergraduate writing tutors.

Swanson-Owens, Deborah. "Identifying Natural Sources of Resistance: A Case Study of Implementing Writing Across the Curriculum." Research in the Teachingof English 20.1 (Feb. 1986): 69-97.

Case studies of two high school teachers and their resistance to incorporating more writing assignments and write-to-learn assignments in their curriculum. Author develops a model of a"curricular system of meaning" that includes knowledge, materials/activities,teacher, and students. Identifies components of the meaning system that can produce resistance to change in curriculum.

Thaiss, Chris. "Writing Across the Curriculum: The State of the Art." The Quarterly of the National Writing Project and the Center for theStudy of Writing 14-17.

Author's responses to questions about WAC programs in general: WAC program structures and activities, curriculum supporting WAC, evaluation procedures, uses for federal funding.

Tighe, M. A., and S. M. Koziol, Jr. "Practices in the Teaching of Writing by Teachers of English, Social Studies, and Science." English Education 14 (May 1982): 76-85.

This article summarizes a survey the authors took of several 7th-12th grade English, Social Studies, and Science teachers to gather information about what kinds of writing activities each uses in his or her classroom. Most teachers saw a need for cross-curricular coordination in teaching writing, but didn't see any move in that direction occuring in their school systems, and didn't feel qualified to lead such activity. Tighe and Koziol conclude that there is a need to continue training teachers to teach writing, andthat they need to be encouraged to use more prewriting and more expressive writing activities.

Townsend, Martha A. "Integrating WAC into General Education: An Assessment Case Study" WAC and Program Assessment: Diversit Methods of Evaluating Writing Across the Curriculum Programs. Eds. Brian Huot and Kathleen Lake. Forthcoming.

General education reforms often result in writing across the curriculum initiatives, but some campuses already have WAC programs. This article documents the assessment process undergone by the Campus Writing Program at University of Missouri-Columbia in its efforts to see how it should be best integrated into the new general education program. A breakdown of the assessment process, including the internal and external review processes, is presented as an example of "fourth generation evaluation," a "hermeneutic dialogue" in which conclusions are not necessarily as important as uncovering concerns of stakeholders. Townsend offers concluding insights, however, in how the existing WAC program can serve as an institutional resource for developing general education.

Waldo, Mark L. "The Last Best Place for Writing Across the Curriculum: The Writing Center." WPA: Writing Program Administration 16.3 (Spring 1993): 15-26.

Argues (in the discussion with Catherine Blair and Louise Smith ) that aWAC program should be "housed" in a writing center. Reasons: Writing Centers provide a defined place for experts in WAC. The Writing Center promotes dialogue between disciplines. And it's a rhetorically neutral place where the dialogue can take place, not a disciplinary space with its own rhetoric.

Walker, Kristin. "The Debate over Generalist and Specialist Tutors: Genre Theory's Contributions." TheWriting Center Journal 18.2 (1998): 27-46.

Genre theory can help resolve some aspects of the debate on whether tutors ought to be familiar with discipline-specific discourse conventions. Genre theory's focus upon the social processes involved in communication allows writing centers to train tutors to act as guides for students seeking to initiate themselves into the discourse of specific disciplines. Tutors can learn aspects of the discourse conventions and culture of other disciplines, and can study models of different genres in order to see how the conventions become realized. Argues that tutor training should involve interviews with specialists in various disciplines in order to learn what that particular discipline values.

Welsh, Nancy."Playing with Reality: Writing Centers after the Mirror Stage." College Composition and Communication 51.1 (1999): 51-69.

Lacan's notion of the mirror stage, in which idealized visions of the self clash with movements that upset those visions, provides a focus for understanding the gap between the ways in which writing centers understand their work and the rest of the academy sees that work. Object-relations theory, though, provides a more useful way of visualizing the work of the writing center. In the Lacanian model, academic language is both outside and other, so writing centers are pressured to "get on" with the task of helping the student adapt to her identity as a writer in this type of discourse. In the object-relations model, writing centers are able to use the tutorial time as a place for students to play, to form their own identities as writers in response to assignments and expectations.

Weiss, Robert, and Michael Peich. "Faculty Attitude Change in a Cross-Disciplinary Writing Workshop." College Composition and Communication 31 (1980): 33-41.

Describes activities of a 5-day workshop on writing andwriting instruction. Workshop engaged faculty in the acts of writing,revising, peer critique, rather than simply talking about these activities. Activities emphasized the process of writing, and the importance of assignments that carefully define audience.

Weiss, Robert H. "Writing in the Total Curriculum: A Program for Cross-Disciplinary Cooperation."Eight Approaches to Teaching Composition. Eds. Timothy R. Donovan and Ben W. McClelland. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1980.133-149.

Describes the ideal (English department) composition course for a WACprogram. Discusses what a WAC program could do to support faculty in various disciplines use writing in their courses, whether the faculty member is awriting conservative or a writing liberal. Suggests that faculty should be encouraged to use write-to-learn exercises.

Young, Art. "The Wonder of Writing Across the Curriculum." Language and Learning Across the Disciplines 1.1 (1994):58-71.

Young indicates that his experience in WAC has enabled him to remain focused on teaching. After briefly surveying the history of WAC programs and summarizing some obstacles to these programs, Young shows how his involvement as a "WAC man" surfaces in the assignments he gives to his Victorian lit class.

Young, Art and Toby Fulwiler. "The Enemies of Writing Across the Curriculum." Programs that Work. Ed. Fulwiler, Toby, and Art Young. Portsmith, NH: Boynton/Cook. 1990. 287-295.

While WAC programs contribute to better academic environments, they face certain threats, mostly based on their status as an "adjunct" program. Some of these "enemies" include uncertain leadership as a result of not having full faculty status, the orthodoxy of the English department in its failure to recognize rhetoric as an area of English department scholarship, the practice of compartmentalized academic administration in the resistence to cross-disciplinary programs, the traditional reward system based upon research instead of teaching, the practice of machine testing and quantification, and entrenched attitudes that perceive writing programs both as a threat to prevailing pedagogical practices and an easy response to pressures demanding pedagogical reform.

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