Morse AF, Benitez VL, Belpaeme T, Cangelosi A, Smith LB (2015) Posture Affects How Robots and Infants Map Words to Objects. PLoS ONE, 10(3): e0116012. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116012
Vales, C. & Smith, L. B. (2015) Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children. Developmental Science, 18: 65-79. doi: 10.1111/desc.12179
Cantrell, L., Kuwabara, M. & Smith, L. B. (2015) Set Size and Culture Influence Children's Attention to Number. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 131, 19-37.Back to the top
Byrge, L., Sporns, O. & Smith, L. B. (in press) Developmental process emerges from extended brain-body-behavior networks. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2014.04.010
Augustine, E., Jones, S. & Smith, L. B. (in press) Relations Among Early Object Recognition Skills: Objects and Letters. Journal of Cognition and Development.
Smith, LB., Yu, C., Yoshida, H., & Fausey, C. (in press) Contributions of head-mounted cameras to studying the visual environments of infants and young children. Journal of Cognition and Development.
Yurovsky, D., Fricker, D., Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2014) The Role of Partial Knowledge in Statistical Word Learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(1), 1-22.
James, K.H., Jones, S.S., Swain, S., Pereira, A., & Smith, L.B. (2014) Some views are better than others: Evidence for a visual bias in object views self-generated by toddlers. Developmental Science, 17(3), 338-351.
Smith, LB., Suanda, S., & Yu, C. (2014) The unrealized promise of infant statistical word-referent learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
Smith, LB., Street, S., Jones, S.S., & James, K.H. (2014) Using the axis of elongation to align shapes: Developmental changes between 18 and 24 months of age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 123, 15-35.
Arias-Trejo, N., Cantrell, L., Smith, L. B., & Alva Canto, E. A. (2014) Early comprehension of the Spanish plural. Journal of Child Language, Available on CJO 2014 doi:10.1017/S0305000913000615
Mix, K., Prather, R., Smith, L. B. & Stockton, J. (2014) Young Children's Interpretation of Multi-Digit Number Names: From Emerging Competence to Mastery. Child Development, 85, 1306-1319.
Byrge, L., Smith, L. B. & Mix, K. (2014) Beginnings of Place Value: How Preschoolers Write Three-Digit Numbers. Child Development, 85, 437-443.
Pereira, A., Smith, L. B. & Yu, C. (2014) A Bottom-up View of Toddler Word Learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(1), 178-185.
James, K. H., Swain, S. N., Jones, S. S., & Smith, L. B. (2014) Young Children's Self-Generated Object Views and Object Recognition. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15, 393-401.Back to the top
Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2013) Joint Attention without Gaze Following: Human Infants and Their Parents Coordinate Visual Attention to Objects through Eye-Hand Coordination. PLoS One, 8(11):e79659. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079659.
Smith, L. B. (2013) It's all connected: Pathways in visual object recognition and early noun learning. American Psychologist. 68(8), 618-629.
Yurovsky, D., Boyer, T., Smith, L. B., & Yu, C. (2013) Probabilistic Cue Combination: Less is More. Developmental Science, 16(2), 149-158.
Yurovsky, D., Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2013) Competitive processes in cross-situational word learning. Cognitive Science, 1-31.
Cantrell, L. M. & Smith, L. B. (2013) Set size, individuation, and attention to shape. Cognition, 126, 258-267.
Yurovsky, D., Smith, L. B. & Yu, C. (2013) Statistical Word Learning at Scale: The Baby's View is Better Developmental Science, 1-7.
Cantrell, L. & Smith, L. B. (2013) Open questions and a proposal: A critical review of the evidence on infant numerical abilities. Cognition, 128(3), 331-352.
Grzyb, B., Smith, L. B. & del Pobil, A. (2013) Reaching for the unreachable: reorganization of reaching with walking. Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on, 5(2), 162-172.Back to the top
Yee, M., Jones, S. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Changes in visual object recognition precede the shape bias in early noun learning. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol.3, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00533.
Yurovsky, D., Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Statistical speech segmentation and word learning in parallel: Scaffolding from child-directed speech. Frontiers in Language Sciences, 3.
Benitez, V. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning. Cognition, 125, 339-352.
Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Embodied Attention and Word Learning by Toddlers. Cognition, 125, 244-262.
Motz, B., Goldstein, M. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Understanding Behavior from the Ground Up: Constructing robots to reveal simple mechanisms underlying complex behaviour. Psychology Learning & Teaching 11(1), 77-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/plat.2012.11.1.77
Smith, L. B. & Yu, C. (2012) Visual Attention is not enough: Individual differences in statistical word-referent learning in infants. Language, Learning and Development.
Kuwabara, M. & Smith, L. B.(2012) Cross Cultural Differences in Cognitive Development: Attention to Relations and Objects. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113, 20-35.
Son, J., Smith, L. B., Goldstone R. & Leslie M. (2012) The Importance of being Interpreted: Grounded Words and Children's Relational Reasoning. Frontiers in Psychology. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00045
Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Modeling Cross-Situational Word-Referent Learning: Prior Questions. Psychological Review, 119(1), 21-39.
Sethuraman, N. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Verbs and Attention to Relational Roles in English and Tamil. Journal of Child Language, 40(2), 358-390.Back to the top
"Journal Best Paper Award"
Augustine, E., Jones, S. & Smith, L. B. (2011) Parts and relations in young children's shape-based object recognition. Journal of Cognition and Development, 12(4), 556-572.
Smith, L. B., Yu, C., & Pereira, A. F. (2011) Not your mother's view: the dynamics of toddler visual experience. Developmental Science, 14:1, 9-17.
Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2011) What you learn is what you see: Using eye movements to study infant cross-situational word learning. Developmental Science, 14(2), 165-180.
Son, J., Smith, L. B. & Goldstone, R. (2011) Connecting instances to promote children's relational reasoning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 260-277.
Kuwabara, M., Son, J. & Smith, L. B. (2011) Attention to Context: U.S. and Japanese Children's Emotional Judgments. Journal of Cognition and Development. 12(4), 502-517.
Samuelson, L., Smith, L. B., Perry, L. & Spencer, J. (2011) Grounding Word Learning in Space. PLoS One 6(12): e28095. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028095
Street, S., James, K., Jones, S. & Smith, L. B. (2011) Vision for Action in Toddlers: The Posting Task. Child Development, 82(6), 2083-2094.
Sethuraman, N., Laakso, A. & Smith, L. B. (2011) Verbs and Syntactic Frames in Children's Elicited Actions: A Comparison of Tamil- and English-Speaking Children. Journal of Psycholinguistics, 40, 241-252.
Beckage, N., Smith, L. B. & Hills, T. (2011) Small worlds and semantic network growth in typical and late talkers. PLoS One.
Spencer, J. P., Perone, S., Smith, L. B. & Samuelson, L. K. (2011) Learning words in space and time: Probing the mechanisms behind the suspicious-coincidence effect. Psychological Science, 22(8), 1049-1057. Supplementary material
Hidaka, S. & Smith, L. B. (2011) Packing: A Geometric Analysis of Feature Selection and Category Formation. Cognitive Systems Research, 12(1), 1-18.
Smith, L. B. & Jones, S. (2011) Symbolic play connects to language through visual object recognition. Developmental Science, 14(5), 1142-1149, doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01065.xBack to the top
Smith, L. B. (2010) More than concepts: How multiple integrations make human intelligence. In D. Mareschal, P. Quinn, & S. Lea (eds), The making of human intelligence, New York: Oxford University Press.
Maouene, J., Laakso, A. & Smith, L. B. (2010) Object associations of early-learned light and heavy English verbs. First Language.
Pereira, A., James, K., Jones, S. & Smith, L. B. (2010) Early biases and developmental changes in self-generated object views. Journal of Vision, 10 (11):22, 1-13.
Smith, L. B., Colunga, E. & Yoshida, H. (2010) Knowledge as process: Contextually-cued attention and early word learning. Cognitive Science, 34, 1287-1314.
Hills, T. T., Maouene, J., Riordan, B. & Smith, L. B. (2010) The Associative Structure of Language: Contextual Diversity in Early Word Learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 63, 259-273.
McClelland, J. L., Botvinick, M. M., Noelle, D. C., Plaut, D. C., Rogers, T. T., Seidenberg, M. S. & Smith, L. B. (2010) Letting Structure Emerge: Connectionist and Dynamical Systems Approaches to Cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 348-356.
Sethuraman, N. & Smith, L. B. (2010) Cross-linguistic differences in talking about scenes. Journal of Pragmatics,42, 2978-2991.
Hidaka, S. & Smith, L. B. (2010) A single word in a population of words. Language Learning and Development, 6(3), 206-222.
Sheya, A. & Smith, L. B. (in press) Development through Sensory-Motor Coordinations. Invited chapter, Feschrift for F. Varela, MIT Press.
Smith, L. B. & Sheya, A. (2010) Is Cognition Enough to Explain Cognitive Development? Topics in Cognitive Science, 1-11.
Sheya, A. & Smith, L. B. (2010) Changing priority maps in 12- to 18-month-olds: An emerging role for object properties. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17(1), 22-28.Back to the top
Zapf, J. & Smith, L. B. (2009) Knowing more than one can say: The early regular plural. Child Language, 36, 1145-1155.
Hanania, R. & Smith, L. B. (2009) Selective attention and attention switching. Developmental Science, 1-14.
Yu, C., Smith, L.B., Shen, H., Pereira, A.F., & Smith, T.G. (2009). Active Information Selection: Visual Attention Through the Hands. IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, 1, 141-151.
Smith, L.B. & Pereira, A. (2009). Shape, action, symbolic play and words: Overlapping loops of cause and consequence in developmental process. In S. Johnson (ed), Neo-constructivism: The new science of cognitive development. Oxford University Press.
Smith, L.B. (2009). From fragments to geometric shape: Changes in visual object recognition between 18 and 24 months. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(5), 290-294.
Colunga, E., Smith, L. B. & Gasser, M. (2009) Correlation versus prediction in children's word learning: Cross-linguisic evidence and simulations. Language and Cognition, 1(2), 197-217.
Hills, T. T., Maouene, M., Maouene, J., Sheya, A. & Smith, L. B. (2009) Categorical Structure among shared features in networks of early-learned nouns. Cognition, 112(3), 381-396.
Hills, T., Maouene, M., Maouene, J. & Sheya, A., Smith L.B (2009) "Longitudinal Analysis of Early Semantic Networks: Preferential Attachment or Preferential Acquisition?" Psychological Science, 20(6), 729-739.
Pereira, A. & Smith, L. B. (2009). Developmental changes in visual object recognition between 18 and 24 months of age. Developmental Science, 12, 57-80.
Clearfield, M. W., Dineva, E., Smith, L. B., Diedrich, F. J. & Thelen, E. (2009) Cue salience and infant perseverative reaching: tests of the dynamic field theory. Developmental Science, 12 (1), 26-40.
Hockema, S. A. & Smith, L. B. (2009) Learning your language, outside-in and in-side out. Linguistics, 47(2), 453-479.
Smith, L. B. (2009) Dynamic executives. Developmental Science, 12(1), 22-23.
Smith, L. B. (2009) Dynamic systems, sensori-motor processes and the origins of stability and flexibility. In J. Spencer, M. Thomas and J. McClelland (eds). Toward a unified theory of development: Connectionism and dynamic systems theories re-considered. Oxford University Press.Back to the top
Maouene, J., Hidaka, S. & Smith, L. B. (2008) Body Parts and Early-Learned Verbs. Cognitive Science, 32(7), 1200-1216.
Yoshida, H. & Smith, L. B. (2008) What's in View for Toddlers? Using a Head Camera to Study Visual Experience. Infancy, 13(3), 229-248.
Smith, L. B. & Yu, C. (2008) Infants rapidly learn word-referent mappings via cross-situational statistics. Cognition, 106(3), 1558-1568.
Son, J., Smith, L. B. & Goldstone, R. (2008) Simplicity and Generalization: Short-cutting Abstraction in Children's Object Categorizations. Cognition, 108(3), 626-638.
Pereira, A. F., Smith, L. B. & Yu, C. (2008) Social Coordination in Toddler's Word Learning: Interacting Systems of Perception and Action. Connection Science, 20(2-3), 73-89.
Zapf, J. & Smith, L. B. (2008) Meaning Matters in Children's Plural Productions. Cognition, 108(2), 466-476.
Colunga, E. & Smith, L. B. (2008) Flexibility and variability: Essential to human cognition and the study of human cognition. New Ideas in Psychology, 26(2), 174-192.
Perry, L. K., Smith, L. B. & Hockema, S. A. (2008) Representational momentum and children's sensori-motor representations of objects. Developmental Science, 11(3), F17-F23.
Colunga, E. & Smith, L. B. (2008) Knowledge embedded in process: The self-organization of skilled noun learning. Developmental Science, 11(2), 195-203.Back to the top
Smith, L. B., Yu, C. & Pereira, A. (2007) From the Outside-IN: Embodied Attention in Toddlers LNAI 4648 445-454.
Zapf, J. A., & Smith, L. B. (2007) When do children generalize the plural to novel noun? First Language, 27(1), 53-73.
Smith, L. B., Maouene, J. & Hidaka, S. (2007) The body and children's word learning. In J. Plummert & J. Spencer (eds). The emerging spatial mind. New York: Oxford University Press, 168-192.
Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2007) Rapid Word Learning under Uncertainty via Cross-Situational Statistics. Psychological Science, 18(5), 414-420.
Smith, L. B. & Breazeal, C. (2007) The Dynamic Lift of Developmental Process. Developmental Science, 10(1), pp 61-68.
Laakso, A. & Smith, L. B. (2007) Pronouns and verbs in adult speech to children: A corpus analysis. Journal of Child Language, 34(4), 725-763.
Sandhofer, C. & Smith, L. B. (2007) Learning Adjectives in the Real World: How Learning Nouns Impedes Learning Adjectives. Language, Learning and Development, 3(3), 233-267.
Barsalou, L. W., Breazeal, C. & Smith, L. B. (2007) Cognition as Coordinated Non-Cognition. Cognitive Processing, 8, 79-91.
Back to the top
Sheya, A. & Smith, L. B. (2006) Perceptual Features and the Development of Conceptual Knowledge. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7(4), 455-476.
Kersten, A. W., Smith, L. B. & Yoshida, H. (2006) Influences of object knowledge on the acquisition of verbs in english and japanese. In K. Hirsh-Pasek & R. M. Golinkoff (Eds.), Action meets word: How children learn verbs. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, 499-524.
Smith, L. B. & Samuelson, L. (2006) An attentional learning account of the shape bias: Reply to Cimpian & Markman (2005) and Booth, Waxman & Huang (2005). Developmental Psychology, 42(6), 1339-1343.
Thelen, E. & Smith, L.B. (2006) Dynamic Systems Theories. In Handbook of Child Psychology, Volume 1, Theoretical Models of Human Development, 6th Edition, William Damon (Editor), Richard M. Lerner (Volume editor), pp 258-312.
Smith, L. B. (2006) Piaget was right: Objects exist in the here-and-now of sensory-motor experience. [Powerpoint presentation]
Gershkoff-Stowe, L., Connell, B. & Smith, L. B. (2006) Priming Overgeneralizations in Two-and-Four-Year-Old Children. Journal of Child Language, 33(3), 461-486.
Clearfield, M. W., Diedrich, F. J., Smith, L. B. & Thelen, E. (2006) Young infants reach correctly in A-not-B tasks: On the development of stability and perseveration. Infant Behavior & Development, 29(3), 435-444.Back to the top
Jones, S. & Smith, L. B. (2005) Object name learning and object perception: a devicit in late talkers. Journal of Child Language, 32, 223-240. DOI: 10.1017/S0305000904006646
Smith, L. B. (2005) Emerging idea about categories. In L. Gershkoff-Stowe & D. H. Rakison (Eds.), Building Object Categories in Developmental Time, Malwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 159-173.
Smith, L. & Gasser, M. (2005) The Development of Embodied Cognition: Six Lessons from Babies. Artificial Life, 11, 13-29.
Smith, L. B. (2005) Shape: A Developmental Product. In Carlson, L. & VanderZee, E. (Eds). Functional Features in Language and Space, Oxford University Press, 235-255.
Smith, L. B. (2005) Action Alters Shape Categories. Cognitive Science, 29, 665-679.
Samuelson, L. K. & Smith, L. B. (2005) They Call It Like They See It: Spontaneous Naming and Attention to Shape. Developmental Science, 8(2), 182-198.
Yoshida, H. & Smith, L. B. (2005) Linguistic cues enhance the learning of perceptual cues. Psychological Science, 16(2), 90-95.
Colunga, E. &Smith, L. B. (2005) From the Lexicon to Expectations About Kinds: A Role for Associative Learning. Psychological Review, 112(2).
Smith, L. B. (2005) Cognition as a dynamic system: Principles from embodiment. Developmental Review.Back to the top
Some Older Publications
Gershkoff-Stowe, L. & Smith, L. B. (2004) Shape and the First Hundred Nouns. Child Development, 75(4), 1098-1114.
Sandhofer, C. M. & Smith, L. B. (2004) Perceptual complexity and form class cues in novel word extension tasks: how 4 year-old children interpret adjectives and count nouns. Developmental Science 7(3), 378-388.
Colunga, E. & Smith, L. B. (2003) The emergence of abstract ideas: evidence from networks and babies. Philosophical Transactions by the Royal Society B. Theme Issue: The abstraction paths: from experience to concept. L. Saitta (Ed) 358(1435), 1205-1214.
Smith, L. B., Jones, S. S., Yoshida, H. & Colunga, E. (2003) Whose DAM account? Attentional learning explains. Cognition, 87, 209-213.
Smith, L. B. (2003) Learning to Recognize Objects. Psychological Science, 14(3)
Yoshida, H. & Smith, L.B. (2003) Known and novel noun extensions: Attention at two levels of abstraction. Child Development, 76(2) 564-577.
Smith, L. B., Colunga, E. & Yoshida, H. (2003). Making an Ontology: Cross-linguistic Evidence In Oakes, L. & Rakison, D. (Eds.) Early Category and Concept Development Making Sense of the Blooming, Buzzing Confusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 275-302.
Yoshida, H. & Smith, L. B. (2003) Correlations, Concepts and Cross-Linguistic Differences. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Yoshida, H. & Smith, L. B. (2003) Shifting Ontological Boundaries: How Japanese- and English-Speaking Children Generalize Names for Animals and Artifacts. Developmental Science, 6(1), 1-36.
Smith, L. B. & Samuelson, L. (2003) Different is good: connectionism and dynamic systems theory are complementary emergentist approaches to development. Developmental Science, 6(4), 434-439.
Smith, L. B. & Thelen, E. (2003) Development as a dynamic system. TRENDS in Cognitive Science, 7, 343-348.
Smith, L.B., Jones, S.S., Landau, B., Gershkoff-Stowe, L. & Samuelson, L. (2002). Object Name Learning Provides On-the-Job Training for Attention. Psychological Science13, 13-19.
Sandhofer, C. & Smith, L. B. (2001) Why Children Learn Color and Size Words So Differently: Evidence From Adults' Learning of Artificial Terms. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 130(4), 600-620.
Gasser, M., Colunga, E. & Smith, L. B. (2001). Developing Relations. In Emile van der Zee & Urpo Nikanne (Eds.), Cognitive interfaces: Constraints on linking cognitive information, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 185-214.
Smith, L. B. (2001) How domain-general processes may create domain-specific biases. In Bowerman, M. & Levinson, S. (Eds.) Language Acquisition and Conceptual Development. Cambridge University Press.
Yoshida, H. & Smith, L.B. (2001). Early noun lexicons in English and Japanese. Cognition, 82, B63-B74.
Thelen, E., Schoner, G., Scheier, C. & Smith, L. B. (2001) The Dynamics of embodiment: A field theory of infant perseverative reaching. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 1-86.
Sandhofer, C., Smith, L. B. & Luo, J. (2000) Counting Nouns and Verbs in the Input: Differential Frequencies, Different Kinds of Learning? Journal of Child Language, 27, 561-585.
Smith, L. B. & Samuelson, L. (2000) Grounding Development in Cognitive Process. Child Development, 71 (1), 98-106.
Smith, L. B. (2000) Avoiding Associations when its Behaviorism you Really Hate. From Becoming a word learner, A debate on lexical acquisition (Golinkoff et al, eds). Oxford University Press.
Smith, L. B. (2000). Learning how to learn words: An associative crane. In Becoming a Word Learner. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ryalls, B. O. & Smith, L. B. (2000) Adults' Acquisition of Novel Dimension Words: Creating a Semantic Congruity Effect. The Journal of General Psychology, 127(3), 279-326.
Colunga, E. & Smith, L.B. (2000) How Words Get to Be Names. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development.
Samuelson, L. K. & Smith, L. B. (1999). Early noun vocabularies: Do ontology, category organization and syntax correspond? Cognition, 73(1), 1-33.
Smith, L. B., Thelen, E., Titzer, R. & McLin, D. (1999) Knowing in the Context of Acting: The Task Dynamics of the A-Not-B Error. Psychological Review, 106(2,) 235-260.
Samuelson, L. & Smith, L.B. (1998) Memory and attention make smart word learning: An alternative account of Akhtar, Carpenter and Tomasello. Child Development, 69, 94-104.
Gasser, M. & Smith, L.B. (1998) Learning Nouns and Adjectives: A Connectionist Account. Language and Cognitive Processes, 13(2/3), 269-306.
Smith, L. B. & Samuelson, L. (1997) Perceiving and Remembering: Category Stability, Variability and Development. In K. Lamberts & D. Shanks (Eds.), Knowledge, Concepts and Categories, Psychology Press, East Sussex, UK, 161-195.
Smith, L. B., Gasser, M. & Sandhofer, C. M. (1997). Learning to talk about the properties of objects: A network model of the development of dimensions. In Goldstone, Robert L.; Medin, Douglas L.; Schyns, Philippe G. (1997), Perceptual learning. The psychology of learning and motivation, 36, 219-255. San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press. xii, 393.
Smith, L. B., Jones, S. & Landau, B. (1996) Naming in young children: A dumb attentional mechanism? Cognition, 60, 143-171.
Smith, L. B. & Jones, S. (1993) Cognition Without Concepts. Cognitive Development, 8, 181-188.
Smith, L. B. (1993). The concept of same. In Reese, Hayne W. (ed). Advances in child development and behavior, 24, 215-252. San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press. xii, 317 pp.San Diego, CA.
Smith, L. B. & Sera, M. (1992) A Developmental Analysis of the Polar Structure of Dimensions. Cognitive Psychology, 24, 99-142.
Smith, L. B. & Heise, D. (1992) Perceptual Similarity and Conceptual Structure. Percepts, Concepts and Categories, B. Burns (Editor). Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., 233-272.
Smith, L. B. (1989) A Model of Perceptual Classification in Children and Adults. Psychological Review, 96(1), 125-144.
Evans, P. M. & Smith, L. B. (1988) The Development of Identity as a Privileged Relation in Classification: When Very Similar is Just Not Similar Enough. Cognitive Development, 3, 265-284.
Smith, L. B. (1984) Young Children's Understanding of Attributes and Dimensions: A Comparison of Conceptual and Linguistic Measures. Child Development, 55(2), 363-380.