Complete Google Scholar List of Publications

Selected Publications


Morse AF, Benitez VL, Belpaeme T, Cangelosi A, Smith LB (2015) Posture Affects How Robots and Infants Map Words to Objects. PLoS ONE, 10(3): e0116012. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116012
Vales, C. & Smith, L. B. (2015) Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children. Developmental Science, 18: 65-79. doi: 10.1111/desc.12179
Cantrell, L., Kuwabara, M. & Smith, L. B. (2015) Set Size and Culture Influence Children's Attention to Number. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 131, 19-37.
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Byrge, L., Sporns, O. & Smith, L. B. (in press) Developmental process emerges from extended brain-body-behavior networks. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2014.04.010
Augustine, E., Jones, S. & Smith, L. B. (in press) Relations Among Early Object Recognition Skills: Objects and Letters. Journal of Cognition and Development.
Smith, LB., Yu, C., Yoshida, H., & Fausey, C. (in press) Contributions of head-mounted cameras to studying the visual environments of infants and young children. Journal of Cognition and Development.
Yurovsky, D., Fricker, D., Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2014) The Role of Partial Knowledge in Statistical Word Learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(1), 1-22.
James, K.H., Jones, S.S., Swain, S., Pereira, A., & Smith, L.B. (2014) Some views are better than others: Evidence for a visual bias in object views self-generated by toddlers. Developmental Science, 17(3), 338-351.
Smith, LB., Suanda, S., & Yu, C. (2014) The unrealized promise of infant statistical word-referent learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
Smith, LB., Street, S., Jones, S.S., & James, K.H. (2014) Using the axis of elongation to align shapes: Developmental changes between 18 and 24 months of age. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 123, 15-35.
Arias-Trejo, N., Cantrell, L., Smith, L. B., & Alva Canto, E. A. (2014) Early comprehension of the Spanish plural. Journal of Child Language, Available on CJO 2014 doi:10.1017/S0305000913000615
Mix, K., Prather, R., Smith, L. B. & Stockton, J. (2014) Young Children's Interpretation of Multi-Digit Number Names: From Emerging Competence to Mastery. Child Development, 85, 1306-1319.
Byrge, L., Smith, L. B. & Mix, K. (2014) Beginnings of Place Value: How Preschoolers Write Three-Digit Numbers. Child Development, 85, 437-443.
Pereira, A., Smith, L. B. & Yu, C. (2014) A Bottom-up View of Toddler Word Learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21(1), 178-185.
James, K. H., Swain, S. N., Jones, S. S., & Smith, L. B. (2014) Young Children's Self-Generated Object Views and Object Recognition. Journal of Cognition and Development, 15, 393-401.
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Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2013) Joint Attention without Gaze Following: Human Infants and Their Parents Coordinate Visual Attention to Objects through Eye-Hand Coordination. PLoS One, 8(11):e79659. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079659.
Smith, L. B. (2013) It's all connected: Pathways in visual object recognition and early noun learning. American Psychologist. 68(8), 618-629.
Yurovsky, D., Boyer, T., Smith, L. B., & Yu, C. (2013) Probabilistic Cue Combination: Less is More. Developmental Science, 16(2), 149-158.
Yurovsky, D., Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2013) Competitive processes in cross-situational word learning. Cognitive Science, 1-31.
Cantrell, L. M. & Smith, L. B. (2013) Set size, individuation, and attention to shape. Cognition, 126, 258-267.
Yurovsky, D., Smith, L. B. & Yu, C. (2013) Statistical Word Learning at Scale: The Baby's View is Better Developmental Science, 1-7.
Cantrell, L. & Smith, L. B. (2013) Open questions and a proposal: A critical review of the evidence on infant numerical abilities. Cognition, 128(3), 331-352.
Grzyb, B., Smith, L. B. & del Pobil, A. (2013) Reaching for the unreachable: reorganization of reaching with walking. Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, IEEE Transactions on, 5(2), 162-172.
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Yee, M., Jones, S. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Changes in visual object recognition precede the shape bias in early noun learning. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol.3, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00533.
Yurovsky, D., Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Statistical speech segmentation and word learning in parallel: Scaffolding from child-directed speech. Frontiers in Language Sciences, 3.
Benitez, V. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning. Cognition, 125, 339-352.
Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Embodied Attention and Word Learning by Toddlers. Cognition, 125, 244-262.
Motz, B., Goldstein, M. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Understanding Behavior from the Ground Up: Constructing robots to reveal simple mechanisms underlying complex behaviour. Psychology Learning & Teaching 11(1), 77-86.
Smith, L. B. & Yu, C. (2012) Visual Attention is not enough: Individual differences in statistical word-referent learning in infants. Language, Learning and Development.
Kuwabara, M. & Smith, L. B.(2012) Cross Cultural Differences in Cognitive Development: Attention to Relations and Objects. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113, 20-35.
Son, J., Smith, L. B., Goldstone R. & Leslie M. (2012) The Importance of being Interpreted: Grounded Words and Children's Relational Reasoning. Frontiers in Psychology. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00045
Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Modeling Cross-Situational Word-Referent Learning: Prior Questions. Psychological Review, 119(1), 21-39.
Sethuraman, N. & Smith, L. B. (2012) Verbs and Attention to Relational Roles in English and Tamil. Journal of Child Language, 40(2), 358-390.
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award winning"Journal Best Paper Award"
Augustine, E., Jones, S. & Smith, L. B. (2011) Parts and relations in young children's shape-based object recognition. Journal of Cognition and Development, 12(4), 556-572.
Smith, L. B., Yu, C., & Pereira, A. F. (2011) Not your mother's view: the dynamics of toddler visual experience. Developmental Science, 14:1, 9-17.
Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2011) What you learn is what you see: Using eye movements to study infant cross-situational word learning. Developmental Science, 14(2), 165-180.
Son, J., Smith, L. B. & Goldstone, R. (2011) Connecting instances to promote children's relational reasoning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 260-277.
Kuwabara, M., Son, J. & Smith, L. B. (2011) Attention to Context: U.S. and Japanese Children's Emotional Judgments. Journal of Cognition and Development. 12(4), 502-517.
Samuelson, L., Smith, L. B., Perry, L. & Spencer, J. (2011) Grounding Word Learning in Space. PLoS One 6(12): e28095. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028095
Street, S., James, K., Jones, S. & Smith, L. B. (2011) Vision for Action in Toddlers: The Posting Task. Child Development, 82(6), 2083-2094.
Sethuraman, N., Laakso, A. & Smith, L. B. (2011) Verbs and Syntactic Frames in Children's Elicited Actions: A Comparison of Tamil- and English-Speaking Children. Journal of Psycholinguistics, 40, 241-252.
Beckage, N., Smith, L. B. & Hills, T. (2011) Small worlds and semantic network growth in typical and late talkers. PLoS One.
Spencer, J. P., Perone, S., Smith, L. B. & Samuelson, L. K. (2011) Learning words in space and time: Probing the mechanisms behind the suspicious-coincidence effect. Psychological Science, 22(8), 1049-1057. Supplementary material
Hidaka, S. & Smith, L. B. (2011) Packing: A Geometric Analysis of Feature Selection and Category Formation. Cognitive Systems Research, 12(1), 1-18.
Smith, L. B. & Jones, S. (2011) Symbolic play connects to language through visual object recognition. Developmental Science, 14(5), 1142-1149, doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01065.x
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Smith, L. B. (2010) More than concepts: How multiple integrations make human intelligence. In D. Mareschal, P. Quinn, & S. Lea (eds), The making of human intelligence, New York: Oxford University Press.
Maouene, J., Laakso, A. & Smith, L. B. (2010) Object associations of early-learned light and heavy English verbs. First Language.
Pereira, A., James, K., Jones, S. & Smith, L. B. (2010) Early biases and developmental changes in self-generated object views. Journal of Vision, 10 (11):22, 1-13.
Smith, L. B., Colunga, E. & Yoshida, H. (2010) Knowledge as process: Contextually-cued attention and early word learning. Cognitive Science, 34, 1287-1314.
Hills, T. T., Maouene, J., Riordan, B. & Smith, L. B. (2010) The Associative Structure of Language: Contextual Diversity in Early Word Learning. Journal of Memory and Language, 63, 259-273.
McClelland, J. L., Botvinick, M. M., Noelle, D. C., Plaut, D. C., Rogers, T. T., Seidenberg, M. S. & Smith, L. B. (2010) Letting Structure Emerge: Connectionist and Dynamical Systems Approaches to Cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 348-356.
Sethuraman, N. & Smith, L. B. (2010) Cross-linguistic differences in talking about scenes. Journal of Pragmatics,42, 2978-2991.
Hidaka, S. & Smith, L. B. (2010) A single word in a population of words. Language Learning and Development, 6(3), 206-222.
Sheya, A. & Smith, L. B. (in press) Development through Sensory-Motor Coordinations. Invited chapter, Feschrift for F. Varela, MIT Press.
Smith, L. B. & Sheya, A. (2010) Is Cognition Enough to Explain Cognitive Development? Topics in Cognitive Science, 1-11.
Sheya, A. & Smith, L. B. (2010) Changing priority maps in 12- to 18-month-olds: An emerging role for object properties. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17(1), 22-28.
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Zapf, J. & Smith, L. B. (2009) Knowing more than one can say: The early regular plural. Child Language, 36, 1145-1155.
Hanania, R. & Smith, L. B. (2009) Selective attention and attention switching. Developmental Science, 1-14.
Yu, C., Smith, L.B., Shen, H., Pereira, A.F., & Smith, T.G. (2009). Active Information Selection: Visual Attention Through the Hands. IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, 1, 141-151.
Smith, L.B. & Pereira, A. (2009). Shape, action, symbolic play and words: Overlapping loops of cause and consequence in developmental process. In S. Johnson (ed), Neo-constructivism: The new science of cognitive development. Oxford University Press.
Smith, L.B. (2009). From fragments to geometric shape: Changes in visual object recognition between 18 and 24 months. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(5), 290-294.
Colunga, E., Smith, L. B. & Gasser, M. (2009) Correlation versus prediction in children's word learning: Cross-linguisic evidence and simulations. Language and Cognition, 1(2), 197-217.
Hills, T. T., Maouene, M., Maouene, J., Sheya, A. & Smith, L. B. (2009) Categorical Structure among shared features in networks of early-learned nouns. Cognition, 112(3), 381-396.
Hills, T., Maouene, M., Maouene, J. & Sheya, A., Smith L.B (2009) "Longitudinal Analysis of Early Semantic Networks: Preferential Attachment or Preferential Acquisition?" Psychological Science, 20(6), 729-739.
Pereira, A. & Smith, L. B. (2009). Developmental changes in visual object recognition between 18 and 24 months of age. Developmental Science, 12, 57-80.
Clearfield, M. W., Dineva, E., Smith, L. B., Diedrich, F. J. & Thelen, E. (2009) Cue salience and infant perseverative reaching: tests of the dynamic field theory. Developmental Science, 12 (1), 26-40.
Hockema, S. A. & Smith, L. B. (2009) Learning your language, outside-in and in-side out. Linguistics, 47(2), 453-479.
Smith, L. B. (2009) Dynamic executives. Developmental Science, 12(1), 22-23.
Smith, L. B. (2009) Dynamic systems, sensori-motor processes and the origins of stability and flexibility. In J. Spencer, M. Thomas and J. McClelland (eds). Toward a unified theory of development: Connectionism and dynamic systems theories re-considered. Oxford University Press.
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Maouene, J., Hidaka, S. & Smith, L. B. (2008) Body Parts and Early-Learned Verbs. Cognitive Science, 32(7), 1200-1216.
Yoshida, H. & Smith, L. B. (2008) What's in View for Toddlers? Using a Head Camera to Study Visual Experience. Infancy, 13(3), 229-248.
Smith, L. B. & Yu, C. (2008) Infants rapidly learn word-referent mappings via cross-situational statistics. Cognition, 106(3), 1558-1568.
Son, J., Smith, L. B. & Goldstone, R. (2008) Simplicity and Generalization: Short-cutting Abstraction in Children's Object Categorizations. Cognition, 108(3), 626-638.
Pereira, A. F., Smith, L. B. & Yu, C. (2008) Social Coordination in Toddler's Word Learning: Interacting Systems of Perception and Action. Connection Science, 20(2-3), 73-89.
Zapf, J. & Smith, L. B. (2008) Meaning Matters in Children's Plural Productions. Cognition, 108(2), 466-476.
Colunga, E. & Smith, L. B. (2008) Flexibility and variability: Essential to human cognition and the study of human cognition. New Ideas in Psychology, 26(2), 174-192.
Perry, L. K., Smith, L. B. & Hockema, S. A. (2008) Representational momentum and children's sensori-motor representations of objects. Developmental Science, 11(3), F17-F23.
Colunga, E. & Smith, L. B. (2008) Knowledge embedded in process: The self-organization of skilled noun learning. Developmental Science, 11(2), 195-203.
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Smith, L. B., Yu, C. & Pereira, A. (2007) From the Outside-IN: Embodied Attention in Toddlers LNAI 4648 445-454.
Zapf, J. A., & Smith, L. B. (2007) When do children generalize the plural to novel noun? First Language, 27(1), 53-73.
Smith, L. B., Maouene, J. & Hidaka, S. (2007) The body and children's word learning. In J. Plummert & J. Spencer (eds). The emerging spatial mind. New York: Oxford University Press, 168-192.
Yu, C. & Smith, L. B. (2007) Rapid Word Learning under Uncertainty via Cross-Situational Statistics. Psychological Science, 18(5), 414-420.
Smith, L. B. & Breazeal, C. (2007) The Dynamic Lift of Developmental Process. Developmental Science, 10(1), pp 61-68.
Laakso, A. & Smith, L. B. (2007) Pronouns and verbs in adult speech to children: A corpus analysis. Journal of Child Language, 34(4), 725-763.
Sandhofer, C. & Smith, L. B. (2007) Learning Adjectives in the Real World: How Learning Nouns Impedes Learning Adjectives. Language, Learning and Development, 3(3), 233-267.
Barsalou, L. W., Breazeal, C. & Smith, L. B. (2007) Cognition as Coordinated Non-Cognition. Cognitive Processing, 8, 79-91.

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Sheya, A. & Smith, L. B. (2006) Perceptual Features and the Development of Conceptual Knowledge. Journal of Cognition and Development, 7(4), 455-476.
Kersten, A. W., Smith, L. B. & Yoshida, H. (2006) Influences of object knowledge on the acquisition of verbs in english and japanese. In K. Hirsh-Pasek & R. M. Golinkoff (Eds.), Action meets word: How children learn verbs. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, 499-524.
Smith, L. B. & Samuelson, L. (2006) An attentional learning account of the shape bias: Reply to Cimpian & Markman (2005) and Booth, Waxman & Huang (2005). Developmental Psychology, 42(6), 1339-1343.
Thelen, E. & Smith, L.B. (2006) Dynamic Systems Theories. In Handbook of Child Psychology, Volume 1, Theoretical Models of Human Development, 6th Edition, William Damon (Editor), Richard M. Lerner (Volume editor), pp 258-312.
Smith, L. B. (2006) Piaget was right: Objects exist in the here-and-now of sensory-motor experience. [Powerpoint presentation]
Gershkoff-Stowe, L., Connell, B. & Smith, L. B. (2006) Priming Overgeneralizations in Two-and-Four-Year-Old Children. Journal of Child Language, 33(3), 461-486.
Clearfield, M. W., Diedrich, F. J., Smith, L. B. & Thelen, E. (2006) Young infants reach correctly in A-not-B tasks: On the development of stability and perseveration. Infant Behavior & Development, 29(3), 435-444.
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Jones, S. & Smith, L. B. (2005) Object name learning and object perception: a devicit in late talkers. Journal of Child Language, 32, 223-240. DOI: 10.1017/S0305000904006646
Smith, L. B. (2005) Emerging idea about categories. In L. Gershkoff-Stowe & D. H. Rakison (Eds.), Building Object Categories in Developmental Time, Malwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 159-173.
Smith, L. & Gasser, M. (2005) The Development of Embodied Cognition: Six Lessons from Babies. Artificial Life, 11, 13-29.
Smith, L. B. (2005) Shape: A Developmental Product. In Carlson, L. & VanderZee, E. (Eds). Functional Features in Language and Space, Oxford University Press, 235-255.
Smith, L. B. (2005) Action Alters Shape Categories. Cognitive Science, 29, 665-679.
Samuelson, L. K. & Smith, L. B. (2005) They Call It Like They See It: Spontaneous Naming and Attention to Shape. Developmental Science, 8(2), 182-198.
Yoshida, H. & Smith, L. B. (2005) Linguistic cues enhance the learning of perceptual cues. Psychological Science, 16(2), 90-95.
Colunga, E. &Smith, L. B. (2005) From the Lexicon to Expectations About Kinds: A Role for Associative Learning. Psychological Review, 112(2).
Smith, L. B. (2005) Cognition as a dynamic system: Principles from embodiment. Developmental Review.
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Some Older Publications

Gershkoff-Stowe, L. & Smith, L. B. (2004) Shape and the First Hundred Nouns. Child Development, 75(4), 1098-1114.
Sandhofer, C. M. & Smith, L. B. (2004) Perceptual complexity and form class cues in novel word extension tasks: how 4 year-old children interpret adjectives and count nouns. Developmental Science 7(3), 378-388.
Colunga, E. & Smith, L. B. (2003) The emergence of abstract ideas: evidence from networks and babies. Philosophical Transactions by the Royal Society B. Theme Issue: The abstraction paths: from experience to concept. L. Saitta (Ed) 358(1435), 1205-1214.
Smith, L. B., Jones, S. S., Yoshida, H. & Colunga, E. (2003) Whose DAM account? Attentional learning explains. Cognition, 87, 209-213.
Smith, L. B. (2003) Learning to Recognize Objects. Psychological Science, 14(3)
Yoshida, H. & Smith, L.B. (2003) Known and novel noun extensions: Attention at two levels of abstraction. Child Development, 76(2) 564-577.
Smith, L. B., Colunga, E. & Yoshida, H. (2003). Making an Ontology: Cross-linguistic Evidence In Oakes, L. & Rakison, D. (Eds.) Early Category and Concept Development Making Sense of the Blooming, Buzzing Confusion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 275-302.
Yoshida, H. & Smith, L. B. (2003) Correlations, Concepts and Cross-Linguistic Differences. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Yoshida, H. & Smith, L. B. (2003) Shifting Ontological Boundaries: How Japanese- and English-Speaking Children Generalize Names for Animals and Artifacts. Developmental Science, 6(1), 1-36.
Smith, L. B. & Samuelson, L. (2003) Different is good: connectionism and dynamic systems theory are complementary emergentist approaches to development. Developmental Science, 6(4), 434-439.
Smith, L. B. & Thelen, E. (2003) Development as a dynamic system. TRENDS in Cognitive Science, 7, 343-348.
Smith, L.B., Jones, S.S., Landau, B., Gershkoff-Stowe, L. & Samuelson, L. (2002). Object Name Learning Provides On-the-Job Training for Attention. Psychological Science13, 13-19.
Sandhofer, C. & Smith, L. B. (2001) Why Children Learn Color and Size Words So Differently: Evidence From Adults' Learning of Artificial Terms. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 130(4), 600-620.
Gasser, M., Colunga, E. & Smith, L. B. (2001). Developing Relations. In Emile van der Zee & Urpo Nikanne (Eds.), Cognitive interfaces: Constraints on linking cognitive information, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 185-214.
Smith, L. B. (2001) How domain-general processes may create domain-specific biases. In Bowerman, M. & Levinson, S. (Eds.) Language Acquisition and Conceptual Development. Cambridge University Press.
Yoshida, H. & Smith, L.B. (2001). Early noun lexicons in English and Japanese. Cognition, 82, B63-B74.
Thelen, E., Schoner, G., Scheier, C. & Smith, L. B. (2001) The Dynamics of embodiment: A field theory of infant perseverative reaching. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 1-86.
Sandhofer, C., Smith, L. B. & Luo, J. (2000) Counting Nouns and Verbs in the Input: Differential Frequencies, Different Kinds of Learning? Journal of Child Language, 27, 561-585.
Smith, L. B. & Samuelson, L. (2000) Grounding Development in Cognitive Process. Child Development, 71 (1), 98-106.
Smith, L. B. (2000) Avoiding Associations when its Behaviorism you Really Hate. From Becoming a word learner, A debate on lexical acquisition (Golinkoff et al, eds). Oxford University Press.
Smith, L. B. (2000). Learning how to learn words: An associative crane. In Becoming a Word Learner. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ryalls, B. O. & Smith, L. B. (2000) Adults' Acquisition of Novel Dimension Words: Creating a Semantic Congruity Effect. The Journal of General Psychology, 127(3), 279-326.
Colunga, E. & Smith, L.B. (2000) How Words Get to Be Names. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development.
Samuelson, L. K. & Smith, L. B. (1999). Early noun vocabularies: Do ontology, category organization and syntax correspond? Cognition, 73(1), 1-33.
Smith, L. B., Thelen, E., Titzer, R. & McLin, D. (1999) Knowing in the Context of Acting: The Task Dynamics of the A-Not-B Error. Psychological Review, 106(2,) 235-260.
Samuelson, L. & Smith, L.B. (1998) Memory and attention make smart word learning: An alternative account of Akhtar, Carpenter and Tomasello. Child Development, 69, 94-104.
Gasser, M. & Smith, L.B. (1998) Learning Nouns and Adjectives: A Connectionist Account. Language and Cognitive Processes, 13(2/3), 269-306.
Smith, L. B. & Samuelson, L. (1997) Perceiving and Remembering: Category Stability, Variability and Development. In K. Lamberts & D. Shanks (Eds.), Knowledge, Concepts and Categories, Psychology Press, East Sussex, UK, 161-195.
Smith, L. B., Gasser, M. & Sandhofer, C. M. (1997). Learning to talk about the properties of objects: A network model of the development of dimensions. In Goldstone, Robert L.; Medin, Douglas L.; Schyns, Philippe G. (1997), Perceptual learning. The psychology of learning and motivation, 36, 219-255. San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press. xii, 393.
Smith, L. B., Jones, S. & Landau, B. (1996) Naming in young children: A dumb attentional mechanism? Cognition, 60, 143-171.
Smith, L. B. & Jones, S. (1993) Cognition Without Concepts. Cognitive Development, 8, 181-188.
Smith, L. B. (1993). The concept of same. In Reese, Hayne W. (ed). Advances in child development and behavior, 24, 215-252. San Diego, CA, US: Academic Press. xii, 317 pp.San Diego, CA.
Smith, L. B. & Sera, M. (1992) A Developmental Analysis of the Polar Structure of Dimensions. Cognitive Psychology, 24, 99-142.
Smith, L. B. & Heise, D. (1992) Perceptual Similarity and Conceptual Structure. Percepts, Concepts and Categories, B. Burns (Editor). Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., 233-272.
Smith, L. B. (1989) A Model of Perceptual Classification in Children and Adults. Psychological Review, 96(1), 125-144.
Evans, P. M. & Smith, L. B. (1988) The Development of Identity as a Privileged Relation in Classification: When Very Similar is Just Not Similar Enough. Cognitive Development, 3, 265-284.
Smith, L. B. (1984) Young Children's Understanding of Attributes and Dimensions: A Comparison of Conceptual and Linguistic Measures. Child Development, 55(2), 363-380.

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